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1.
  • Kirchhoff, Jörg W., 1962- (författare)
  • De skjulte tjenestene - om uønsket atferd i offentlige organisasjoner
  • 2010
  • Doktorsavhandling (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • This thesis focuses on the work in primary health care enterprises within two municipals which have organised their services after new organisational models attuned to New Public Management ideologies. The organisational model, i.e. the purchaser – provider model, had features in common with tayloristic principles, including the separation between planning and execution of work, and it brought about a loss of opportunities for the employee’s flexibility. For this reason, the employee's control over their own work was focus of the study.MethodThe data are based on a comparative intensive case study of four organizations, i.e. enterprises that performed nursing and care services. The respondents in the study were home assistants, care workers, auxiliary nurses and registered nurses; all of which performed the work, i.e. practical assistance and primary health care services. The data was collected using participant observation, individual interviews and focus group interviews.FindingsEmployees often did more work than was expected by organisational standards. This work is called “hidden services” and categorised as organisational misbehaviour, since it was neither expected nor desired by the organisation. Five types of work were performed in addition to their expected work: surplus work, additional work, forbidden work, inappropriate basic work and collective work.The rationale for doing so diverged among occupations, since different occupations called upon dissimilar types of rules to legitimize their misbehaviour. Three types of rules legitimized the overriding of organisational rules, all based on distinctive work relations among employees, including employees’ work relations to clients.First, there were situational rules based on informal work relations with clients – situational work relations. Although these rules were established across all occupations in the study, situated rules were most active in long-lasting work relations between employees and clients. Second, there were collective rules, developed in consequence of employees’ social position at the workplace, bringing employees together in work teams and thereby establishing collective work relations. Collective rules included rules that modified organizational rules on how to provide service to clients, and rules that legitimized the breaking of administrative rules. Finally, professional rules, as a result of professionals’ socialisation through formal education and work relations among professionals at the workplace, provided the last distinct type of rules to legitimize organisational misbehaviour.ConclusionThe thesis concludes that there are distinct work relations in the social structure of organisations that explains employees' execution of hidden services. Formal, private, collective and professional work relations are part of the social structure in organisations. These work relations generates mechanisms, i.e. norms, that modifies and legitimises the work in primary health care services
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  • Aure, Venke, 1954- (författare)
  • Kampen om blikket : En longitudinell studie der formidling av kunst til barn og unge danner utgangspunkt for kunstdidaktiske diskursanalyser
  • 2011
  • Doktorsavhandling (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • Interest in how children and young people encounter art has been the driving force behind this thesis. I have focused on how the target group's meeting with art in art museums, but also schools, can help to develop knowledge and understanding of the dissemination process. The study is empirical based, involving observations and interviews with 20 participants during several years.Perspectivation under the first phase of the study centered largely on analyzing art didactics as a complex phenomenon in the interface between the adults' intentions, rationales and decisions at different planning levels and the experiences of children and young people related to dissemination activities. As established dissemination theory did not provide a case related conceptual framework for analyzing the empirical material arising from the interrelationship between the visual arts and didactics, the empirical focus of the thesis was supplemented with a conceptual and more developed theoretical perspective. The research focus came to be concentrated on incorporating the phenomenon of art dissemination into an epistemological, theoretical and art paradigmatic discourse. Theories connected with youth culture are applied to highlight children and young people as co-constructors in their encounters with art.The empirical data refers to the conflict between the modernist established doxa of the dissemination field and the more postmodernist, relational orientation of the informants. As a basis for the understanding and processing of the field of study, I chose a constructivist research perspective that emphasizes that texts are always written from a specific position embedded in different theories and values.   
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4.
  • Johansson, Kerstin, 1963- (författare)
  • Mot en ny kunskapsbaserad praktik i socialt arbete
  • 2011
  • Konferensbidrag (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • I utredningen Evidensbaserad praktik i socialtjänsten – till nytta för brukaren (SOU 2008:18) konstateras att kunskapsbasen för insatser inom socialtjänsten är outvecklad och att Svensk socialtjänst i för liten utsträckning bedrivs utifrån kunskap om effekten av olika insatser, arbetssätt och metoder. Med bl.a. detta betänkande som grund iscensätts nu en genomgripande satsning på att utveckla socialt arbete. Förutom denna satsning mot en stärkt kunskapsutveckling och en s.k. evidensbaserad praktik står socialt arbete som praktikfält och akademiskt ämne inför genomgripande förändringar och utveckling som kan kopplas samman med övergripande samhällsförändringar och nya krav på socialt arbete.Den framtid som skrivs fram inom socialt arbete, såväl politiskt som vetenskapligt, tycks även hanbdla om att organisera och styra medborgare, professionella, organisationer, institutioner och diskurser, i syfte att uppnå bestämda politiska mål. Detta speglar dagens förändrade villkor (såväl organisatoriska som relationella, mellan individ och samhälle) för välfärdsproduktion. Denna situation kan också förstås som ett socialt fenomen och som en social konstruktion skapad av politiska, ekonomiska och sociala förhållanden där olika grupperingar med stor makt och inflytande har en betydande roll (M Payne,2002, Foucault 1991, Rose 1999) ).
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  • Olsen, Terje, 1967- (författare)
  • Versjoner av arbeid Dagaktivitet og arbeid etter avviklingen av institusjonsomsorgen
  • 2009
  • Doktorsavhandling (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • This dissertation is a study of employment and daytime activities for people defined as having an intellectual disability. The study’s point of origin is the somewhat paradoxical situation these individuals are put into when it comes to work and daytime activities. They are on the one hand granted a disability benefit and made objects for a logic of caretaking; they are regarded as vocationally disabled and defined as outside the workforce. On the other hand, they are still included in a hegemonic work ethic with political objectives for ‘full employment’ and ‘a working-life for all’. A main objective in this study has been to discuss what different types of work and daytime activities mean to these individuals themselves; what role work and daytime activities have in their identity management and self-presentation in everyday life.The study consists of three parts. Part I outlines a historical contextualisation of the relationship between intellectual disability and participation in work and production. This part also provides a brief account for the labour market situation for these individuals today, and discusses the present situation related to the official aims of the administrative reform, which closed down the state-financed institutions for people with intellectual disabilities. Part II discusses the theoretical perspectives and methodological approach used within the study. The theoretical perspectives are developed using concepts from Dorothy Holland et.al, Pierre Bourdieu and Erving Goffman. The methodological approach is based on qualitative case studies with participatory observations and interviews within the different settings where people with intellectual disability work. Part III presents and analyses data derived from fieldwork. Central elements in the meaning of work in identity management are discussed and classified in six basic ‘key stories’ about work and daytime activity. Different forms of adapted and ordinary work are discussed in context of gender roles and social class aspects.
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9.
  • Øvrelid, Bjarne, 1958- (författare)
  • Nødvendigheten av fronetisk handlingskompetanse i sosialt arbeid
  • 2009
  • Doktorsavhandling (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • The aim of this study has partly been to explore how social work students develop their conception of relevant competence during their bachelor education. This part of the study is based on qualitative interviews with a sample of twelve students from Lillehammer University College interviewed individually focusing on the relationship between theory and practice, competence learned at the university and college and in practice placement and on the personal aspect of professional action. The most significant research finding was the ways in which the students changed their view on relevance after a period of practice placement during the second year of the bachelor program. The students consider competence experienced in practice placement as the "real thing" and competence learned in college as a secondary, but necessary competence for passing the final exam. Competence learned in practice placement was taken for granted and critical reflection on knowledge systems, practices and the relationship between welfare politics and professional action was outside the limits of what the students deemed relevant competence.From these research findings and interpretations I derived new research questions which I have investigated in five articles. Article 1 scrutinizes the strong impact of practice placement, article 2 explores the purpose of ethics in a context where social work tries to mediate between social control and users participation, article 3 is concerned with the necessity of moral competence in order to make good judgements in the application of the mandate given from the welfare state, article 4 asks to what extent the concept of empowerment requires certain techniques of intervention in order to make conform clients to conventional ways of living, while article 5 explores the potentials in Buddhism applied to relevant social work issues.The articles are situated in three different theoretical traditions. I use the traditions partly to challenge core elements within the traditions themselves, partly to challenge conventional viewpoints concerning competences in social work like arguments in favour of scientific knowledge because it contributes to the elevation of the status of social workersThe first one draws on the tradition from situated learning and explores learning as participation in two different contexts (college and workplace). I challenge the notion that development of competence is about negotiations between contexts. I contend that the institutionalised practices in social work have a very disciplinary impact on the concept of relevant competence which is rather underestimated by our educational system.Article 2, 3 and 4 profit from Michel Foucault's governmentality-concept. His perspective on the ways in which the population in modern societies is governed. is used to explore how the welfare state uses its professions to combine social control with freedom and self-governing. In my interpretation, ethics is a part of a soft and subtle intervention strategy to transform social and structural issues to individual troubles and make clients cooperative and responsible. I also contend that the mandate given to social workers requires good judgement in their application of individualized strategies which actualize their phronetic competence. I also interpret empowerment as a strategy for intervention that makes clients conform to conventional ideals in society. This interpretation challenges the notion of empowerment as liberation strategy defined by the clients themselves.Article 5 is entirely devoted to the question of moral character, drawing heavily on core values from Buddhism. Buddhism is used to identify and suggest ways to overcome ego-related problems which are frequently occurring in social work (such as the problem of "burn-out" and the ways bureaucratic distance is used as a shield against demanding clients). I also suggest that Buddhism can be used as a strategy for promoting personal social engagement in social work.My empirical study as well as my articles identifies "phronetic competences" in social work as the most important ones. This concept is derived from the aristotelian "phronesis" meaning personal, experienced-based competence for making morally right judgements according to particular situations. I argue that phronetic competence is highly relevant because it includes capacities for actualizing moral aspects of a situation, critical analytical reflection and for scrutinizing knowledge systems, practices and impacts of welfare goals which tend to be taken for granted.  I contend that the education of social workers must make a stronger effort to facilitate phronetic competences among social work students to prevent social work from being reduced to technical skills and social engineering. 
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