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1.
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2.
  • Armbrecht, John (författare)
  • Use value of cultural experiences: A comparison of contingent valuation and travel cost
  • 2014
  • Ingår i: Tourism Management. - 0261-5177. ; 42, s. 141-148
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Few applications to assess the value of cultural experiences exist. This is particularly frustrating for cultural institutions, as it provides them with few opportunities to reveal their importance in terms of attractiveness and thus what drives tourism demand. This study applies the travel cost method (TCM) and contingent valuation method (CVM) to assess the value of two rural cultural institutions in order to compare the results of the valuation methods. The results reveal that visitor experiences consist of a core cultural experience as well as other valuable experiences before and after. Whereas CVM allows for a valuation of the core cultural experience separately from other experiences, the TCM is limited to an overall assessment. The TCM is therefore an inappropriate measure of the value of the cultural experiences when the total experience includes several other experiences. If visitors travel for the sake of only one cultural experience, TCM may be preferable due to its simple applicability and cost efficiency. If, however, as is most often the case, a cultural experience is part of a bundle of experiences, the application of CVM is recommendable. This is also the case, if only visitors who state the cultural experience to be the primary reason for travelling are included.
3.
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4.
  • Cullinane, Kevin (författare)
  • Targeting the Environmental Sustainability of European Shipping: The Need for Innovation in Policy and Technology
  • 2014
  • Rapport (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • At their Summit meeting in Gothenburg in June 2001, Europe’s heads of state and government reached agreement on a European strategy for sustainable development. The social and economic dimensions of the Lisbon strategy were complemented by an environmental dimension. Thus, the Gothenburg Summit represents a breakthrough for sustainable development in the European Union (EU). The University of Gothenburg and Chalmers University of Technology made a commitment to serve, through the joint Centre for Environment and Sustainability (GMV), as a hub for research and scientific follow up of the EU sustainable development strategy. In order to fulfill this commitment, the two universities have established a European Panel for Sustainable Development (EPSD), together with Lund University. In addition, individual members from other universities and research institutes contribute to the work of the Panel. The Centre for Environment and Sustainability (GMV) in Gothenburg is the lead organization in the EPSD. The first report produced by the Panel in 2004 was “From Here to Sustainability – Is the Lisbon/Gothenburg Agenda Delivering?” This was put forward as an independent contribution from academics to the mid-term review of the Lisbon strategy for growth, competitiveness and jobs. The second report “Make the Kok-report sustainable” was produced by the EPSD as a reflection on, and a response to, the mid-term review on the Lisbon strategy chaired by the former Prime Minister of the Netherlands, Wim Kok. The third report “Towards a Smart Growth Strategy for Sustainable Development” aimed to contribute to the re-launch of the EU sustainable development strategy. It contained a critical assessment of “A Platform for Action”, the proposal for an updated strategy put forward by the European Commission. The fourth report “TAKING CHILDREN SERIOUSLY – How the EU can Invest in Early Childhood Education for a Sustainable Future” presented research on children’s interest and ability to understand questions on the social, economic and environmental dimensions of sustainable development. The present report “Targeting the Environmental Sustainability of European Shipping: The Need for Innovation in Policy and Technology” has emerged from a background survey with the aim of mapping what is being done on sustainable shipping within the European Union. A wide scope of strategic EU policy sectors and documents, including existing directives, legislation and regulations on shipping were scrutinized to describe the actual knowledge framework. The background study defines areas where new research could contribute in closing knowledge gaps, and gives a compilation of directives and policy documents concerning sustainable shipping in a European perspective. Based on a definition of sustainable shipping that include all three pillars of sustainable development, the present report presents a holistic view and strategies for achieving a sustainable shipping industry. The report provides scientifically based knowledge of various aspects that affect sustainability at sea, such as particles, greenhouse gases, ship wrecks, ship recycling, and intermodality, as well as a comprehensive overview and updates on regulations. These various areas are presented as separate chapters and solid recommendations are presented on future actions (on EU and international level) to make the shipping industry in Europe a sustainable business. The main author of the report was Prof. Kevin Cullinane, Edinburgh Napier University, UK. The separate chapters in the report were written by Lars Barregård, University of Gothenburg, Erik Fridell, Hulda Winnes, IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute (Particle emission from ships); Hannes Johnson 1 , Chalmers University of Technology (GHG Emissions and the Energy Efficiency Gap in Shipping); Peter Domini, Stena Metall (Ship Recycling: A Global Issue); Lars Barregård, University of Gothenburg (The Health Risks Associated with the Ship Breaking Industry); Ida-Maja Hassellöv, Chalmers University of Technology (Potentially Polluting Shipwrecks); Abhinayan Basu Bal, University of Gothenburg (Sustainable Intermodal Transport with Short Sea Shipping in the EU); A number of researchers and knowledgeable persons have constituted a reference group and further contributed to the report: Katarina Gårdfeldt, Maria Svane, Dan Strömberg, and Jonas Norrman, GMV, Gothenburg; Karin Andersson, Björn Södahl, Josefin Borg, and Oliver Lindqvist, Chalmers University of Technology; Lars Göran Malmberg, Johan Boman, Johan Woxenius, and Mattias Hallquist, University of Gothenburg, Christer Forsgren, Stena Metall; Anders Carlberg, Vgregion; Carl Carlsson, Swedish Shipowners Association, and Axel Wenblad, Former GD National Board of Fisheries. Dan Strömberg, and Maria Svane, University of Gothenburg, have been invaluable during the course of the project and as editors of the publication. The report has been endorsed by the EPSD. Bo Samuelsson Chairman of EPSD
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5.
  • Knez, Matjaz, et al. (författare)
  • The estimation of a driving cycle for Celje and a comparison to other European cities
  • 2014
  • Ingår i: Sustainable Cities and Society. - 2210-6707. ; 11, s. 56-60
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Due to rapidly increasing numbers of vehicles, growing traffic congestion and the very limited use of emission control strategies, motor vehicles are emerging as the largest source of urban air pollution globally. The effectiveness of any control strategy depends on accurate emission models. This study is an attempt to estimate vehicular driving patterns in the Slovenian city of Celje. Using the TangoGPS program for measuring important driving parameters while a vehicle is in motion in traffic, the urban driving cycle of this small city is estimated and then compared with the driving cycles of other cities in Europe. As predicted and demonstrated in the present paper the average speed of vehicles in smaller cities is higher than in larger ones.
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6.
  • Nikopoulou, Zoi, et al. (författare)
  • The role of a cap-and-trade market in reducing NOx and SOx emissions: Prospects and benefits for ships within the Northern European ECA
  • 2013
  • Ingår i: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part M: Journal of Engineering for the Maritime Environment. - 1475-0902. ; 227:2, May 2013, s. 136-154
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • This article presents a financial evaluation of alternative approaches to the abatement of NOx and SOx emissions from ships operating within the emission control area (ECA) of Northern Europe. The objective of this article is to assess the financial viability of a range of alternative technologies and fuel types, by accounting for revenue that might be generated from emissions trading within a cap-and-trade market for NOx and SOx emissions. Using a sample of real ships that operate within the ECA, NOx and SOx emissions for each alternative are estimated, and the revenue generated within a cap-and-trade system is calculated under a given set of assumptions. The results suggest that distillates are not an economic solution to meeting regulatory requirements. Conservative estimates of revenue generated within any prospective cap-and-trade system suggest that seawater scrubbers and Humid Air Motor (HAM) and Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) systems would all constitute financially attractive abatement options, while the use of liquefied natural gas (LNG) is the most financially attractive alternative. A cap-and-trade system is found to be highly efficacious in providing a relatively inexpensive source of finance for investments in improved environmental performance, as well as incentivizing such improvements, thereby removing any requirement for public sector support.
7.
  • Wang, Yuhong, et al. (författare)
  • Domestic Feeder Shipping in China: A Sustainable Driver for Chinese Container Port Development
  • 2014
  • Ingår i: Transportation Journal. - 0041-1612. ; 53:2, s. 253-267
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The future development of China's container ports has become a critical issue, due to the sector's dependence on international trade and the excessive interport competition that exists both within China itself and with the ports of neighboring countries. This article investigates the potential for utilizing domestic feeder shipping services (i.e., coastal and river container shipping services that carry both international and domestic cargoes) as a new source of future long-term growth in China's container port sector. The Gini coefficient is utilized as an indicator for assessing the evolution of throughput over time for the 12 major container ports involved in feeder shipping operations in China. By applying decomposition analysis to a time series of throughput data, the key contributions of feeder shipping services to port development are identified. In addition, structural and spatial concentration effects on corresponding market segment components are computed. Finally, research findings provide evidence that there are potential opportunities for container ports to benefit from burgeoning feeder services carrying domestic trade and engaging in coastal transshipment activities.
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8.
  • Wang, Yuhong, et al. (författare)
  • Traffic consolidation in East Asian container ports: A network flow analysis
  • 2014
  • Ingår i: Transportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice. - 09658564. ; 61, s. 152-163
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The proliferation of hub-and-spoke operations in maritime container transportation has resulted in the widespread consolidation of traffic flows. Utilising liner shipping network configurations, this paper assesses the impact of freight traffic consolidation in the container port industry by exploring the spatial pattern of traffic flow movements and identifying the variety of roles that container ports play within this context. On the basis of the network concept, the spatial inequality of freight traffic consolidation is determined by the density and direction of all meaningful connections (i.e. significant flows) identified by applying Multiple Linkage Analysis (MLA) to an initial traffic flow matrix. The effectiveness of the chosen methodology is tested empirically using a sample comprising the 18 major container ports in East Asia, together with another 21 important container ports located on the East-West trading route. Based on this sample network, the spatial structure of traffic flow consolidation reveals the nature and structure of hub-and-spoke operations within a port system, the relative hub-dependence of ports, the variety of roles which individual ports play within the overall structure of inter-port interactions and the hierarchical configuration of the port industry structure. The paper concludes that MLA offers new insights into the distributional inequality of traffic flows, the spatial and economic interactions between ports and the extent to which hinterlands overlap. Furthermore, the analysis clearly shows that inter-port relationships can no longer be evaluated as isolated phenomena; any change in a specific port's competitiveness will directly impact upon the structure of the whole maritime transportation system. Port authorities and terminal operators will need, therefore, to carefully analyse and disentangle specific inter-port relationships in order to provide the most appropriate basis for their decision making. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd.
9.
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10.
  • Brink, Johan, 1976- (författare)
  • Accumulation, Boundaries, Capabilities and Dynamics - Explaining Firm Growth
  • 2007
  • Doktorsavhandling (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • The aim of this thesis is to further develop the theoretical understanding of the growth of knowledge intensive business organizations. The overall aim is to understand the growth challenges of emerging firms in the knowledge-based economy. In particular this thesis addresses several aspects of the growth of small bioscience based firms. In a world characterized by global markets and rapid information transfer, the existence of firms can no longer be justified by established products and defence of old positions. The traditional logic of economic activities and industrial organization has instead increasingly been replaced by dynamic Schumpeterian competition in which firms compete based upon knowledge and innovations. This thesis depart in the emergent theories of evolutionary economics which focus on economic action and firm behaviour in a restless disequilibrium and endogenous technological change (Nelson and Winter 1982). Within such a restless capitalistic society, new firms play a central role in economic development. As a consequence, economic as well as management researchers has increased their interest in entrepreneurship and industrial dynamics. The emergence and growth new firms have been found to relate to both the introduction and diffusion of new knowledge, innovations, as well as generators of new employment. The growth of new firms is hence vital to understand from the perspective of industrial dynamic throughout the process of Schumpeterian competition and technological evolution and in the longer perspective, economic growth. The thesis is structured around the general, puzzling phenomenon of the relative absence of growing firms within this specific technological and industrial context. In order to investigate the research problem a theoretical framework is put together along two main dimensions. The first consists of a review of the research field of firm growth including such as entrepreneurial and organizational aspects. The second dimension provides a theoretical outline regarding the specific industrial and institutional environment and thus presents a context in which these new firms evolve. The focus within this thesis is primarily on the growth of the individual business organizations. The initial research problem centres around the empirically evident relative low growth rates of bioscience based firms. As a consequence of this low growth rate of firms, the industrial dynamics is instead shaped by entries of new actors, creating a highly turbulent industry. According to the dominant theories of the firm, the reasons for performing activities within the institutional form of a business organization, resulting in economic advantages of being inside the boundaries. Such knowledge and innovation based competition should be seen in the context of the firm’s unique trajectory and as a process of accumulation of associated specific capabilities and distinctive competences. Innovation is thus a process of knowledge accumulation of both internal and external learning, influenced by the specific context in which the firm resides. The lack of growth of new knowledge intensive firms within this specific industry is thus found in the complexities of knowledge accumulation as generating firm capabilities for further actions. The pressure on innovativeness and the ability for firms both to foster and take advantages of knowledge raises several issues regarding growth of knowledge intensive business organizations. Altogether understanding firm growth within this context might potentially be seen as role models for increasingly knowledge intensive firms within other industries. Even with more modest implications such findings might have profound effect when limited to the studied industrial context.
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