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Träfflista för sökning "hsv:(SAMHÄLLSVETENSKAP) hsv:(Annan samhällsvetenskap) hsv:(Tvärvetenskapliga studier) srt2:(1985-1989)"

Sökning: hsv:(SAMHÄLLSVETENSKAP) hsv:(Annan samhällsvetenskap) hsv:(Tvärvetenskapliga studier) > (1985-1989)

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  • Adelswärd, Viveka, 1942- (författare)
  • Styles of success : On impression management as collaborative action in job interviews
  • 1988
  • Doktorsavhandling (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • The research reported in this study takes both a general descriptive approach - investigating the characteristics of 48 job interviews - and a comparative one - analyzing ways in which those who got a job offer differed from those who did not. Data used in this study are tape recordings of job interviews with applicants for trainee-positions with a large Swedish business corporation. Additional data are tape-recordings of post-interviews made by the researcher with the applicants as well as questionnaires from the interviewers.The theoretical nations of self presentation and impression management (Goffman) have been the main points of departure for this study. All communication invalves impression,management. but job interviews focus explicidy on this aspect of interaction. Job interviews can be seen as argumentations where the applicants are actively trying to support their claim that they are perfect for the job. Their argumentations are enacted in a dialogue, however, and the applicants' ways of arguing are thus dependent on the interviewers' contributions to the dialogue. Communication is a constant handling of conflicting demands. The particular solution to these conversational dilemmas manifests itself as a personal style.Three main empirical analyses of the data were performed. The first concemed itself with the structure of the job interview. What does it look like and how is it managed? The analyses show that the responsibility for maintaining the global structure lies almost completely with the interviewer, hut that the applicant has the responsibility for managingthe local structure, for feeding interesting detalls in to the interview.The second set of analyses was concerned with the ways in which the applicants actively argued for themselves. The results show that the successful applicants qualify their claims more forcefully, by modifications, explicit analysis or humour, for instance. The successfulapplicants also receive more interactive assistance from the interviewers.The third set of analyses aimed at investigating some aspects of the interactive elimate in relation to the interviewers' different interviewing styles. The ways in which the interviewers paused and used simultaneous talk had a decisive influence on the length of the applicants' answers. The interactive element of interviewing was once more demonstrated in the analysis of laughter; in the interviews with the successful applicants there was more mutual laughter than in the interviews with the nonsuccessful applicants. The different interviewers' styles were recognized and described accurately by the applicants hut were valued differently.The main significance of the study is the demonstration of the interactive element in dialogue. The interviewers are in a certain sense actively creating the grounds on which they are to base their decision to hire the applicants or not.
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  • Adolfsson, Gundula (författare)
  • Förmedlingsforskning hot eller nödvändighet?
  • 1988
  • Ingår i: Kronos : historia i skola och samhälle. - Linköping : Linköping University Electronic Press. - 1100-1208. ; :2, s. 63-66
  • Tidskriftsartikel (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • Olika vetenskaper har olika sätt och möjligheter att föra ut sina forskningsresultat. I några fall, exempelvis i filosofin eller i högre matematik kan möjligheterna vara obefintliga. Dessa ämnen kännetecknas av en forskning på hög abstraktionsnivå och frånvaron av källmaterial. Kunskaper av denna typ blir givetvis svåra att föra ut till en bredare allmänhet. Bland de humanistiska vetenskaperna finns det sådana med ett konkret källmaterial, exempelvis litteraturvetenskap, konstvetenskap, etnologi, arkeologi eller historia. Källmaterialet i dessa ämnen är forskningens underlag, men också en slags allmängods; oavsett vad vetenskapsmannen tycker kan vi bilda oss en egen uppfattning om en Picassotavla, en Strindbergpjäs eller ett svärd från vikingatiden. Dessa vetenskaper - med sitt mycket konkreta källmaterial - bidrar till att konstituera historieuppfattningar och kulturella normer i samhället.
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  • Andersson, Lotta, 1958- (författare)
  • Ecohydrological water flow analysis of a Swedish landscape in a 100 year perspective
  • 1989
  • Doktorsavhandling (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • The study basically involves analysis in a 100 year perspective of the hydrological response on precipitation from different landscape elements in south-central Sweden, characterized by the interaction of topography, soil type, land management and canopy cover.For this purpose, a dynamic water partitioning model, based on the soil moisture balance, was developed together with a Geographical Information System (GIS)-supported method for the detection of the spatial distribution of soil wetness as an indicator of the probability to act as discharge or recharge areas respectively.A comparison was made of the performance of water balance models of various complexity. It was shown that, generally, increasing the complexity of the submodels did not improve the agreement with measured soil moisture dynamics. As an example, due to negative feedbacks, the rather conservative nature of transpiration was well described by using 30 years monthly means of potential evapotranspiration. However, two important physical processes that are often neglected in water balance models had to be included: the limitation of transpiration by low soil and air temperatures in spring and early summer, and the drainage of rainwater through unsaturated forest soils.The model was used to analyze main differences in hydrological response between forests and open grasslands. It was also used to analyze interannual fluctuations of soil moisture deficts. Ironically, the variability was never as high as in the beginning of the hydrological year. The study revealed considerable fluctuations of 10, 30 and 50-year mean soil moisture deficits, and a general secular trend towards higher summer deficits and larger fluctuations around the median. In the light of the detected critical importance of the choice of time period, the concepts of return and standard periods were challenged. It was shown that the water balance model could be calibrated to simulate also overall basin response. Thus, simulated monthly estimates of both basin evapotranspiration and recharge rates for the Velen Representative Basin agreed well with data determined with other methods.The model was also used to simulate the integrated basin response from different parts of the landscape mosaic as determined from GIS-overlays. The obvious advantage of GIS was demonstrated. Finally, changes due to the wetness-impacting human interventions were analyzed. Since the 1870s such activities were shown to, on average, have caused a slight desiccation of the landscape, although the impacts locally could be large.
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