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Sökning: hsv:(SAMHÄLLSVETENSKAP) hsv:(Annan samhällsvetenskap) hsv:(Tvärvetenskapliga studier) > Chalmers tekniska högskola > (2005-2009)

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  • Bergek, Anna, et al. (författare)
  • Analyzing the functional dynamics of technological innovation systems: A scheme of analysis
  • 2008
  • Ingår i: Research Policy. - 0048-7333. ; 37:3, s. 407-429
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Various researchers and policy analysts have made empirical studies of innovation systems in order to understand their current structure and trace their dynamics. However, policy makers often experience difficulties in extracting practical guidelines from studies of this kind. In this paper, we operationalize our previous work on a functional approach to analyzing innovation system dynamics into a practical scheme of analysis for policy makers. The scheme is based on previous literature and our own experience in developing and applying functional thinking. It can be used by policy makers not only to identify the key policy issues but also to set policy goals. © 2007 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
  • Berglund, Henrik, 1973-, et al. (författare)
  • Entrepreneurial Learning and the Role of Venture Capitalists
  • 2007
  • Ingår i: Venture Capital: An International Journal of Entrepreneurial Finance. ; 9:3, s. 165-181
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • This paper develops a model of entrepreneurial learning in order to explain how VCs support the process of entrepreneurial learning and thereby add value to their ventures. We draw on two generic approaches to learning, termed the hypothesis-testing mode and the hermeneutic mode, which turn out to be closely interrelated in such learning processes. The resulting model comprises four categories, which focus on what entrepreneurs learn and how it is learnt: experimentation, evaluation, unreflective action and unverified assumptions. We then use these analytical categories to illustrate how VCs apply their different forms of expertise to increase a venture’s value once an investment has been made.
  • Bergström, J, et al. (författare)
  • Rule- and Role-Retreat: An Empirical Study of Procedures and Resilience
  • 2009
  • Ingår i: Journal of Maritime Research. - SEECMAR. - 1697-9133. ; 6:1, s. 75-90
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • To manage complex and dynamic socio-technical systems places demands on teams to deal with a range of more and less foreseeable situations. Three groups of participants with different maritime experiences were studied using the same simulation of a ship to better understand the role of generic competencies (e.g. information management, communication and coordination, decision making, and effect control) play in such high-demand situations. Groups with moderate maritime experience were able to balance contextual knowledge with use of generic competencies to successfully manage unexpected and escalating situations. Novices, lacking contextual knowledge, performed less well. Groups with the most maritime expertise remained committed to presumed procedures and roles and did not perform as well as the other two groups. The results suggest that training to operate complex socio-technical systems safely and effectively should go beyond procedures and include development of generic competencies. This could provide operators with better tools to enhance organizational resilience in unexpected and escalating situations.
  • Boks, Casper, et al. (författare)
  • Nordic Post-Graduate Sustainable Design and Engineering Research from a Supervisor Perspective
  • 2008
  • Ingår i: NordDesign 2008.
  • Konferensbidrag (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The multi- and interdisciplinary field of sustainable product innovation is rapidly expanding as an arena for scientific research. Universities in Nordic countries can be considered as an exponent of this type of research, with active research groups in, among others, Göteborg, Helsinki, Lund, Lyngby, Linköping and Trondheim. In the context of a Nordforsk funded project, seven second generation PhD supervisors from these universities, who have been active in this field for many years, discuss funding, publication, research traditions, education and supervision practices related to PhD research in this field. A number of recommendations to improve current practices are made, including the mapping currently existing differences in different academic institutions, studying the cross-over learning effects between academica and non-academic partners, and the development of ‘quality indicators’ of research in the SPI domain.
  • Cedersund, Gunnar, 1978- (författare)
  • Core-box Modelling - Theoretical Contributions and Applications to Glucose Homeostasis Related Systems
  • 2006
  • Doktorsavhandling (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • The study of biological systems through a combination of in vitro characterisations, quantitative in vivo experiments, and mathematical modelling, is receiving an increasingly growing interest through the field system biology. Systems biology uses methods from many different research fields, but the existing methods need to be extended and adapted to fit the new situations. This dissertation presents new methods for various modelling situations, and the developments have been driven by examples related to glucose homeostasis. The modelling methods are contained in a new modelling framework denoted core-box modelling. Core-box modelling attempts to combine the strengths of mechanistic grey-box models (e.g., to describe detailed processes) with the strengths of minimal models (e.g., identifiability and hypothesis testing). The main new steps in the modelling process are: identifiability analysis, model reduction, system identification and a translation between different versions of the same model. In all these sub-disciplines, a review is given and new methods are developed; these contributions are of course valid in any framework. Methods are given for detection and handling of both structural and practical unidentifiability in individual rate expressions. This also yields in vivo expressions for the reactions. Special methods are derived for systems with oscillations. First, two methods for identification of the interactions generating the oscillations in a model are given. Then, two methods are! presented for parameter estimation of a system close to a Hopf bifurcation. The first method reduces the dimension of the parameters appearing in the differential equations, and the second method eliminates the parameters describing the initial state at time zero. Finally, it is shown how the results can be back-translated to a core-box model; a model with all the details of the original grey-box model, but with quality tags from the core model to its possible predictions. The new methodologies are applied to the development of three models. The first is a core-box model for insulin signalling in fat cells. The core model is obtained using hypothesis testing, which shows that the internalisation is necessary to generate the observed dynamics, and that the internalisation is of the same time-scale as an observed overshoot in the data. These predictions are validated experimentally, and the advantages of the core-box model with respect to the both the core and grey-box model are illustrated. The second model describes oscillations in yeast glycolysis. Many of the developed methods are applied, and their performances are demonstrated. This leads, e.g., to a refined prediction of the biochemical mechanisms generating the oscillations. The third model describes muscle metabolism under anaerobic exercise. The developed model is used to resolve a 25 year old contradiction between data and current biochemical understandings regarding the control of g! lycolysis following anaerobic contraction. Finally, an existing model of neutrophil metabolism is analysed. The main conclusion is that the model's apparent lack of robustness lies on the structural level and not on the parametric level. All these contributions show, in various ways, how the combined usage of models, biochemical characterisations, and quantitative in vivo data can work together in a fruitful way; a way which surpasses the abilities of either of these research fields working in isolation.
  • Enhörning, Gunilla, 1950- (författare)
  • Landerierna i Göteborgs stadsbyggande
  • 2006
  • Doktorsavhandling (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • This thesis explores the relationship between town planning and the /landerier/* in Göteborg by using historical morphological analysis combined with geographical information systems (GIS). The growth of the /landerier/, gradually leased out after the city foundation in 1621 on the so-called donation land, is analyzed and described. Originally the /landerier/ were agricultural areas but gradually buildings were constructed, and, during the 1700s the plots developed into lavish environments, sometimes provided also with manor houses, parks etcetera. The industrial break-through in the 1800s affected the town development and caused dissolution of the /landeri/ institution. A pressing demand for expansion on the donation land outside the densely built town centre gave rise to the first comprehensive town plan for a substantial part of this area in 1866. Further plans followed, and around 1920 the donation land was almost entirely planned. The town expansion thus influenced the /landerier/ by claiming the sub-urban areas. But, at the same time, the /landerier/ influenced both plans and the actual building. The interaction between these reciprocal developments are examined by using morphological theories of geographers as M.R.G. Conzen, Rémy Allain and Lennart Améen. The morphological approach has enabled a system analysis, which indicates a structure of consistent elements informing building patterns of today, and identifies factors still forming the city. The use of historical map-overlays has provided an opportunity to analyze the complex totality of information on the city development processes of Göteborg, and to illustrate the related geographical and building processes. * /Landeri/, plural /landerier/: a leasehold agricultural property on the donation land of the town, often with a manor house built on the plot.
  • Eriksson, Marcus, 1974-, et al. (författare)
  • Heat pumps and tradable emission permits: On the carbon dioxide emissions of technologies that cross a tradable emission market boundary
  • 2006
  • Ingår i: Energy Conversion and Management. ; 47:20, s. 3510-3518
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Since January 2005, there is a system with tradable emission permits/allowances in the European Union. Currently, power producers and district heating plants are included in the system, but not the residential sector. In this analytical study, it is discussed how a separation between a trading sector, in which power producers are participating and a nontrading residential sector affect carbon dioxide emissions consequences from heat pumps in households. It is concluded that a replacement of heat pumps in the residential sector results in a leakage of emissions. The emission target in the trading sector is partly achieved at the expense of increased emissions in the residential sector.
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