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Sökning: hsv:(SAMHÄLLSVETENSKAP) > Naturvetenskap > (2000-2004)

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  • Benyamine, Michelle, et al. (författare)
  • Multi-objective environmental management in constructed wetlands
  • 2004
  • Ingår i: Environmental Monitoring & Assessment. - 0167-6369. ; 90:1-3, s. 171-185
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • We examined multi-objective environmental management as applied to pursuing concurrent goals of water treatment, biodiversity and promotion of recreation in constructed wetlands. A case study of a wetland established to treat landfill leachate, increase biodiversity, and promote recreation was evaluated. The study showed that attempts to combine pollution management with activities promoting biodiversity or recreation are problematic in constructed wetlands. This could be because the typical single-objective focus of scientific research leads to contradictions when planning, implementing and assessing the multi-objective use of wetlands. In the specific case of wetland filters for landfill leachate treatment, biodiversity, and recreation, there is a need for further research that meet practical needs to secure positive outcomes.
  • Hassler, Björn, 1964- (författare)
  • The strategy of assistance : Swedish environmental support to the Baltic states 1991-1996
  • 2000
  • Doktorsavhandling (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • Sweden has provided considerable amounts of environmental assistance to the Baltic States since their regained independence. To explain the existence and character of this support program, the rationales behind the Swedish policy have to be analyzed.This dissertation uses a rational choice approach, where it is assumed that the Swedish support to the Baltic States in the 1991-1996 period primarily was guided by self-interest. It is shown that there has been remarkable agreement among the political parties concerning the environmental support to the Baltic States during the whole period. This makes the unitary actor assumption reasonable. Swedish foreign aid history and earlier international environmental cooperation is provided as a background to the analysis of the support policy.It is shown that Sweden tended to favor support projects where the environmental impact had a trans-boundary character, thus implying that Swedish environmental interests were affected. This choice of policy introduced a bias in the allocation of environmental investments in the Baltic States, as they have been required to fmance the largest part of the investments with local funding. The consequence has been that issue-areas that have not been attractive to foreign aid providers have been neglected.
  • Arand, Michael, et al. (författare)
  • Structure of Rhodococcus erythropolis limonene-1,2-epoxide hydrolase reveals a novel active site.
  • 2003
  • Ingår i: EMBO Journal. - 0261-4189 .- 1460-2075. ; 22:11, s. 2583-2592
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Epoxide hydrolases are essential for the processing of epoxide-containing compounds in detoxification or metabolism. The classic epoxide hydrolases have an alpha/beta hydrolase fold and act via a two-step reaction mechanism including an enzyme-substrate intermediate. We report here the structure of the limonene-1,2-epoxide hydrolase from Rhodococcus erythropolis, solved using single-wavelength anomalous dispersion from a selenomethionine-substituted protein and refined at 1.2 Angstrom resolution. This enzyme represents a completely different structure and a novel one-step mechanism. The fold features a highly curved six-stranded mixed beta-sheet, with four alpha-helices packed onto it to create a deep pocket. Although most residues lining this pocket are hydrophobic, a cluster of polar groups, including an Asp-Arg-Asp triad, interact at its deepest point. Site-directed mutagenesis supports the conclusion that this is the active site. Further, a 1.7 Angstrom resolution structure shows the inhibitor valpromide bound at this position, with its polar atoms interacting directly with the residues of the triad. We suggest that several bacterial proteins of currently unknown function will share this structure and, in some cases, catalytic properties
  • Boström, Magnus (författare)
  • Miljörörelsens mångfald
  • 2001
  • Doktorsavhandling (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • In the thesis, the conditions, possibilities, and limitations for Swedish environmental organisations to influence other actors — state agencies, political organisations, enterprises and the Swedish public — are analysed. The focus is on their practice in the nineties, implying a context in which different actors, to a greater extent, have accepted the significance of environmental issues, demand knowledge of and solutions to environmental problems, and with new conflicts continously arising. Against this background, four main interrelated themes are developed. Firstly, focus is set on the diversity and internal relations of the movement itself. Heterogeneity, variation and internal relations are analysed through the use of concepts such as social movement, collective identity, and niche. The diversity of the movement is regarded as a source of strength even though it also produces limitations. Secondly, how environmental organisations act politically and in what political scenes they appear, are analysed through the use of concepts such as political opportunity structure, subpolitics, lifepolitics, risk definition struggle, and intermediary link. The use of combined strategies, as well as the relation between diversity and political action, are highlighted. Thirdly, the cognitive practice of environmental organisations is analysed. This entails analysing how they try to persuade other actors with the help of frames. The extensive use of frame bridgings as well as tendencies towards the use of more cooperative strategies — captured by the concept ecological modernization — provide opportunities but also imply threats against autonomy and critical distance. However, the study shows that the organisations have the capacity to preserve their cognitive autonomy. Fourthly, the importance of organisation for cognitive practice, autonomy, and resource mobilization is stressed, and variations in form are analysed. Certain organisational tendencies such as growth, routinization, and professionalization are highlighted. The study is based on intensive comparative case studies of five Swedish environmental organisations: Swedish Society for Nature Conservation, World Wide Fund for Nature, Friends of the Earth, Greenpeace and the Natural Step. Different kinds of data are used: interviews with keypersons in the organisations, analyses of different kinds of documents produced by the organisations, and different kinds of secondary litterature.
  • Hagström, Peter, et al. (författare)
  • Emergy Evaluation of the Swedish Economy since the 1950s
  • 2004
  • Ingår i: Proceedings of the Third Biennial Emergy Conference. - Gainesville, FL : University of Florida. ; s. 335-344
  • Konferensbidrag (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The aim of this work was to analyze the change in resource basis of the Swedish economy from the 1950s until the present time and to establish indices for solar emergy per Swedish krona (sej/SEK) to be used in further studies. During the period 1956 to 2002, the population increased from 7.3 to 8.9 million. Total emergy use increased from 146.1 x 1021 to 369.5 x1021 solar emjoules per year, largely due to increasing imports of oil and uranium and an expanding service sector. Total imports increased from 85.6 x 1021 to 305.7 x 1021 sej/year and exports increased from 60.8 x 1021 to 262.5 x 1021 sej/year. The fraction of indigenous resources for the total economy decreased from 41.4% to 17.3% in emergy terms. Based on income statistics and consumer price indices the standard of living measured as gross national product per person, corrected for inflation, increased threefold whereas emergy use increased twofold, indicating an efficiency increase of 50% in solar emergy use per real wealth output. The renewable part of solar emergy use decreased from 31.0% to 12.2% during the period, showing a substantial increase in dependence on non-renewable sources.
  • Hassler, Björn (författare)
  • Foreign Assistance as a Policy Instrument : Swedish Environmental Support to the Baltic States, 1991-96
  • 2002
  • Ingår i: Cooperation and Conflict. - 0010-8367. ; 37:1, s. 25-45
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Foreign assistance is often characterized by a mix of altruistic and self-interested considerations of the donor country. Swedish environmental support to the Baltic States during the 1991-96 period was designed primarily to promote Swedish interests. Based on a classification of the different supported issue-areas according to collective good content, it is clear that areas with large trans-boundary effects were favoured. The most important targets for Swedish assistance were wastewater treatment facilities, measures to decrease emissions from point sources and increased nuclear safety, while for example handling of solid waste and nature protection received scant attention. Since Sweden, like most other donors, required the recipient country to cover a significant proportion of the cost of every joint project with local funding, domestic financial resources were furthermore drawn to the areas preferred by the donors. Depending on the scarcity of investment funds as well as of administrative capacity in the Baltic States, other domestically prioritized environmental issue-areas were thus largely neglected.
  • Klintman, Mikael, et al. (författare)
  • Framings of science and ideology: Organic food labelling in the US and Sweden
  • 2004
  • Ingår i: Environmental Politics. - Taylor & Francis. - 0964-4016. ; 13:3, s. 612-634
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Organic food labelling debates in Sweden and the USA are examined in order to compare two different policy discourse climates on the basis of interviews, documents, and websites of governmental and non-governmental organisations. Framings in the Swedish debates mainly take place through eco-pragmatic metaframing, aimed at consensus, and based on a mixture of undefined scientific and ideological framings. The American examples indicate more adversarial, inter-frame controversies, with polarised framings of science and ideology. The article highlights the different pathways towards frame-resolution. The different opportunities and dilemmas of each are discussed. Increased awareness of the interdependence of ecology and politics need not entail public resignation that policy decisions are inevitably arbitrary.
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