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1.
  • Bakas, Ioannis, et al. (författare)
  • Present and potential future recycling of critical metals in WEEE
  • 2014
  • Annan publikation (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • This report focuses on critical metals in Waste from Electrical Electronic Equipment (WEEE) and their recycling possibilities. The criticality is defined in terms of demand. The EU needs access to these metals and recycling can be an important part of the supply-strategy. The report covers assessments of (1) the potential amount of critical metals in the selected product groups, and (2) the actual and potential amount of recycled critical metals. The study shows that the current recycling of critical metals in WEEE is very low, but that the potential amount could be increased threefold by 2015. More recycling requires many different initiatives such as better collection, better pre-processing and end-processing, limiting the export of WEEE or used products out of the EU and better design of the EEE-products. The study also shows the need to improve the data availability regarding simple questions such sales volumes, WEEE composition and the precise content of critical metals. Information also has to be available on the critical metals in the individual components of the EEE-product-groups, so the recyclers can easily identify and get access to the most important components. In that way it is also possible to make it more transparent, where the difficulties and the possibilities are located in the whole recycling process. It will make it easier for recyclers and smelters to give feed back to the designers of EEE so the designing of the products better can support the recycling process.
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  • Fischer, Christian, et al. (författare)
  • Green economy and recycling in Europe
  • 2011
  • Annan publikation (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • Recycling has traditionally been promoted for environmental reasons, but it also has increasing economic importance. A review of the development of the concept of green economy indicates that recycling is an integral part of green economy. This report is about recycling and different aspects of its economic importance for Europe such as turnover, trade within and out of Europe and job creation. The report also covers how much recycling ensures total consumption of different materials in Europe currently and what the potential is for increasing this share. Special focus is also placed on the question of current and future need of rare metals.
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  • Manomaivibool, Panate, et al. (författare)
  • EPR in a non-OECD Context: An introduction to research projects on the management of WEEE
  • 2008
  • Konferensbidrag (refereegranskat)abstract
    • There has been an upsurge of interest in the principle of extended producer responsibility (EPR) among policy makers and scholars in non-OECD countries. The principle has been applied and its impacts studied rather extensively in various OECD countries. However, similar experiences are largely lacking in non-OECD countries. This paper presents some ongoing research and preliminary findings on the management of waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE). The research aims to explore both potentials and limitations of EPR under non-OECD conditions. Hitherto, there have been four projects in three countries: India, Thailand, and Argentina. The first project in India in 2007 investigated the specificity of this non-OECD context and the explanatory boundary of the principle. The second phase of the research studies a WEEE policy development in the three countries. At the time of writing, they appear to follow different courses of action. The India Government issued a guideline suggesting an incorporation of WEEE under the existing Hazardous Waste Rules. The Thai Government shows particular interest in economic instruments, such as product fees and deposit-refund system, and has been working on a draft law that would govern the use of these instruments for the management of some WEEE and other used products. In Argentina, a senator proposed a dedicated WEEE framework law based on EPR. Our analysis identifies collection of post-consumer WEEE as a major practical bottleneck particularly when there is a strong presence of the so-called informal sector. EPR can be a driving force for improvements by mobilising resources from producers and channelling them to end-of-life management. In addition, in a long run, it can lead to design changes in products and product systems. However, market anomalies in a non-OECD context such as sizeable black/grey markets for several product groups and/or illegal import of used products can put identifiable legal producers at a disadvantageous position and retard feedback mechanisms in an EPR programme. Thus, the applicability of policy alternatives should be assessed against the conditions of particular contexts. We also discuss the importance of problem definition in policy processes.
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