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  • Resultat 1-10 av 53
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  • Ekener-Petersen, Elisabeth, 1963-, et al. (författare)
  • Integrated assessment of vehicle fuels with Lifecycle Sustainability Assessment – tested for two petrol and two biofuel value chains.
  • 2016
  • Rapport (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • The production and use of vehicle fuels results in both environmental and socio-economic impacts.In the Renewable Energy Directive (RED) the European Union (EU) implemented mandatory sustainabilitycriteria for biofuels for transport and liquid biofuels. These include demand for reductionsin greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and restrictions related to land with high biodiversityvalue. This directive and the vast majority of the available studies enfolding vehicle fuels, focus onenvironmental impacts, and in many cases primarily on GHG emissions. To move towards sustainabledevelopment, a broader scope of sustainability issues needs to be taken into account in futureassessment efforts and policy.In order to address a broad range of sustainability aspects a method labelled Life Cycle SustainabilityAssessment (LCSA) can be employed. It combines three different lifecycle methods, correspondingto the three pillars of sustainable development; environmental-LCA (E-LCA), socialLCA(S-LCA) and life cycle cost (LCC).In recognition of these knowledge gaps, the overall aim of this project is to examine the use ofLCSA to assess the sustainability performance of transportation fuels. This is achieved by applyingit to four selected fossil and renewable vehicle fuel value chains. The principal aim of this work isto develop the methodology of LCSA with focus on a full integration step in the assessment. Theintegration of different sustainability perspectives is a challenge, as it is inevitably based on valuejudgements. In this analysis we apply the Multi Criteria Decision Analysis (MCDA) methodologyusing different stakeholder profiles for the integration. This approach has the advantage that it increasestransparency on these value judgements. Further, as a part of this work, the policy relevanceof LCSA results is discussed briefly.The analysis considers four vehicle fuel value chains: Petrol based on crude oil from Nigeria ; petrolbased on crud from Russia; Ethanol based on sugarcane grown in Brazil, and ethanol based oncorn (maize) grown in the USA. Both biofuels represent first generation biofuels. These vehiclefuels were selected so as to build on an earlier study where an S-LCA was conducted for nine vehiclefuel chains.1 They were also attractive as they have relatively high data availability. These fourfuels were also found to have relatively high potential risks of negative social impacts in the previousstudy.The LCSA conducted in this study is done by integrating S-LCA results with results from E-LCAand LCC. In addition to the compilation of comparable E-LCA and LCC results we seek to detailthe S-LCA results in the previous study as well as complementing them with positive social impactsin order to provide a more detailed analysis.The main contribution of this project is related to the steps taken towards aggregating the differentsustainability perspectives into one holistic outcome for sustainability. This is done using three differentstakeholder profiles. These represent different worldviews and value judgments when prioritizingbetween the different sustainability perspectives. The result shows that the ranking order ofthe different vehicle fuels chains are quite different for the different stakeholder profiles. This shows that there is not always one single answer for the most sustainable choice between differentalternatives. Rather this is dependent on different priorities held by different stakeholders, or thepopulation they represent.All three underlying lifecycle methods– E-LCA, S-LCA and LCC - have different methodologicallimitations. Further, they are to various extents relatively new and still under development. One issueidentified for all three methods is the lack of robust and updated databases for data collection.This causes problems as the data requirements for assessments are considerable. Thus the importanceof data quality is emphasized. The MCDA method offers, however, a possibility to addressuncertainties based on variable data quality. In general, the MCDA methodology seems to offermany useful features to ameliorate the effects of a number of data-related complications. Assuch, it seems to offer a good tool for the aggregation step in LCSA. This stated, the lack of robustand updated databases imply that the actual LCSA-results for the included vehicle fuels may not berepresentative of the current situation regarding sustainability performance.In this project, positive social impacts were handled and integrated separately. By considering thepositive social impacts separately, the influence of the positive impacts on the end result of anS-LCA becomes visible. Although this was done in a limited way in this analysis, it is important toinclude positive impacts separately in future S-LCA efforts, to be able to distinguish the contributionfrom positive impacts to the total social impact. This may inform future action to enhancethese positive contributions. Yet, the lack of data makes this a difficult task, needing further work.Another important contribution, we believe, is the attempt to assess both fossil and renewable vehiclefuel chains with the same assessment tool. In the future, all vehicle fuels should be evaluated ontheir total sustainability performance at the same level of detail.Finally, we believe that the methodology approach examined in this work may be useful for effortsto leave the 'silo'-thinking that can be found in sustainability discourse behind. Instead of this, actorscan be motivated to focus on broad, comprehensive sustainability implications of various productlife cycles. Once the underlying data and methodology-related limitations have been improved,we believe that LCSA in combination with MCDA has true potential to provide a useful tool forsustainability assessment in a life cycle perspective.LCSA could be used as an information tool to guide the formulation of policy, and as an assessmenttool providing information to assess overall success (or failure) of policy interventions. Inconclusion however, we stress that it is important that communication with stakeholders and decisionmakers should be clear in terms of data quality and of the assumptions and complex assessmentsrequired for this assessment method. This is vital if it is to be useful in policy-making anddevelopment of specific policy instruments.
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  • Elmqvist, Bodil, et al. (författare)
  • Hållbarhetskrav på biodrivmedel
  • 2013
  • Ingår i: 15 nedslag i klimatforskningen : dåtid, nutid, framtid. - Centrum för miljö- och klimatforskning, Lunds universitet. - 978-91-637-2338-4 ; s. 195-208
  • Bokkapitel (refereegranskat)
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  • Harnesk, David, et al. (författare)
  • Regulating a global value chain with the European Union's sustainability criteria – experiences from the Swedish liquid transport biofuel sector
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: Journal of Cleaner Production. - Elsevier. - 0959-6526. ; 153, s. 580-591
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Despite promises that they can contribute toward more environmentally beneficial transportation there are many sustainability concerns about liquid transport biofuels. In response to pressure from civil society, the European Union (EU) has introduced sustainability criteria for biofuels. A hybrid regulatory system involving state and non-state actors stipulates that retailers and producers must comply to be eligible for fiscal support such as tax exemptions. Flexibility in the system allows choice between different means of compliance, including a range of voluntary schemes. We present an analysis of views within the Swedish liquid transport biofuel sector in 2012 – a year after the introduction of EU sustainability criteria. Using document analysis, official statistics, and a survey, we use four key structures of global value chains — input–output structure, territorial configuration, institutional framework, and firm-level chain governance structure — to structure an analysis of biofuel value chain coordination. This yields three main findings regarding how the Swedish liquid transport biofuel system operates within, and views, the new regulatory framework. Firstly that it uses a broad portfolio of feedstock mainly from within Europe, seemingly avoiding countries where any supply conditions may be in doubt; second, larger retailers and producers achieve compliance without the need to provide additional social sustainability information; third, that actors exhibit predominantly Eurocentric perspectives on sustainability, express confidence that their supply chains have strong ‘sustainability performance’ and desire long-term policy stability. We conclude that despite a deep critique of the sustainability of biofuels amongst civil society and academia, EU regulation allows for production systems that reflect a European- and climate change mitigation-centred view on biofuel ‘sustainability’.
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  • Israilava, Alesia, et al. (författare)
  • BEST AVAILABLE TECHNOLOGIES AND TECHNIQUES FOR LARGE POINT SOURCES
  • 2008
  • Rapport (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • This report titled Best available technologies and techniques for large point sources has been prepared within the framework of the programme on Regional Air Pollution in Developing Countries (RAPIDC), Phase III conducted during the period 2005-2008. RAPIDC is funded by the Department of Infrastructure and Economic Cooperation (INEC) of the Swedish International Development Cooperation Agency SIDA. It is coordinated by the Stockholm Environmental Institute (SEI) and carried out in collaboration with Swedish Universities and research organisations together with inter-governmental agencies and research organisation in Asia and Africa. This report is largely focused on eight countries Bangladesh, Bhutan, India, Iran, the Maldives, Nepal, Pakistan and Sri Lanka that are signatories to the Malé Declaration on Control and Prevention of Air Pollution and Its Likely Transboundary Effects for South Asia. The Malé Declaration developed from the policy dialogue held in 1998 under the auspices of UNEP as part of the RAPIDC programme. This report is produced in response to the Malé Activity 5.3 Sector based approaches to prevention and control ( addressing sub-activity 5.3.1 Sector specific mitigation). The report is focused on thermal power plants and large-scale industrial facilities such as steel plants, petroleum refineries, chemical plants, fertilizer production facilities, cement plants, pulp and paper plants etc., which are often labelled point sources. These sectors are major generators of air pollution. In general, the report can be divided into two parts. - The first part seeks to provide an overview of these industrial sectors in the Malé countries. It starts with a general description of the sector (separately for each Malé country in which the sector is present) and provides details of ownership, number and distribution of the production units and so forth. Content then shifts to the description of pollutants and emissions levels, and finally, it discusses current activity levels in terms of installed capacities and production levels and the expected growth. - The second part of the report is devoted to the description of the status of best available technologies in these industrial sectors worldwide. Each of the sectors mentioned above is described in terms of technologies deployed in the production process and main air pollutants. Best available technologies and emerging techniques are then discussed. These can be totally new processes and new process stages as well as process-integrated and end-of-pipe technologies addressing air pollutant reduction. Where possible, emission levels associated with these techniques and technologies are given in each sub-chapter. This report is intended to provide decision-makers in the Malé countries with an overview of the current state of their industrial sectors and technologies available in the world. Moreover, it seeks to provide the opportunity to evaluate possible reduction of emissions when introducing new facilities within the industrial sectors as well as upgrading existing ones.
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