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Sökning: hsv:(SAMHÄLLSVETENSKAP) hsv:(Annan samhällsvetenskap) hsv:(Tvärvetenskapliga studier) > Olsson Lennart

  • Resultat 1-10 av 55
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  • Olsson, Lennart, et al. (författare)
  • GIS och studiet av globala miljöproblem
  • 2002
  • Ingår i: Geografiska Informationssystem - tillämpningsexempel. - Formas. - 91-540-5903 8 ; s. 131-162
  • Bokkapitel (populärvet., debatt m.m.)
  • Andersson, Elina, et al. (författare)
  • The Political Ecology of Land Degradation
  • 2011
  • Ingår i: Annual Review Environment and Resources. - Annual Reviews. - 1545-2050. ; 36, s. 295-319
  • Forskningsöversikt (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Land degradation, as a threat to smallholders in the tropics, attracts less attention than other global challenges. In addition, gaps between scientific understandings of land degradation and international policy regimes are problematic. We identify the three most significant debates including their different policy implications: desertification in the Sahel, nutrient depletion in Africa, and rural reforms in China. Using a political ecology frame across disciplines, scales of inquiry, and regional experiences, we nuance the often polarized scientific debate while seeking to bridge the gap between science and policy. Three main findings emerge: State-led rural reforms in China represent an important approach to land degradation; a renewed focus on agriculture and sustainability in development discourses opens new ways for tackling nutrient depletion with combined sociotechnological reforms; and a policy void in Africa paves the way for market mechanisms, such as payment for environmental services, that are insufficiently understood and put fairness at risk.
  • Bai, Z. G., et al. (författare)
  • Proxy global assessment of land degradation
  • 2008
  • Ingår i: Soil Use and Management. - Wiley-Blackwell. - 0266-0032. ; 24:3, s. 223-234
  • Forskningsöversikt (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Land degradation is always With Lis but its causes, extent and severity are contested. We define land degradation as a long-term decline in ecosystem function and productivity, Which may be assessed using lone-term, remotely sensed normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) data. Deviation from the norm may serve as a proxy assessment of land degradation and improvement - if other factors that may be responsible are taken into account. These other factors include rainfall effects which may be assessed by rain-use efficiency, calculated from NDVI and rainfall. Results from the analysis of the 23-year Global Inventory Modeling and Mapping Studies (GIMMS) NDVI data indicate declining rain-use efficiency-adjusted NDVI on ca. 24% of the global land area with degrading areas mainly in Africa south of the equator, South-East Asia and south China, north-central Australia, the Pampas and swaths of the Siberian and north American taiga; 1.5 billion people live in these areas. The results are very different from previous assessments which compounded what is happening now with historical land degradation. Economic appraisal can be undertaken when land degradation is expressed in terms of net primary productivity and the resultant data allow statistical comparison With other variables to reveal possible drivers.
  • Biermann, Frank, et al. (författare)
  • Transforming governance and institutions for global sustainability: key insights from the Earth System Governance Project
  • 2012
  • Ingår i: Current Opinion in Environmental Sustainability. - Elsevier. - 1877-3443. ; 4:1, s. 51-60
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The current institutional framework for sustainable development is by far not strong enough to bring about the swift transformative progress that is needed. This article contends that incrementalism-the main approach since the 1972 Stockholm Conference-will not suffice to bring about societal change at the level and speed needed to mitigate and adapt to earth system transformation. Instead, the article argues that transformative structural change in global governance is needed, and that the 2012 United Nations Conference on Sustainable Development in Rio de Janeiro must turn into a major stepping stone for a much stronger institutional framework for sustainable development. The article details core areas where urgent action is required. The article is based on an extensive social science assessment conducted by 32 members of the lead faculty, scientific steering committee, and other affiliates of the Earth System Governance Project. This Project is a ten-year research initiative under the auspices of the International Human Dimensions Programme on Global Environmental Change (IHDP), which is sponsored by the International Council for Science (ICSU), the International Social Science Council (ISSC), and the United Nations University (UNU).
  • Elmqvist, Bodil, et al. (författare)
  • A traditional agroforestry system under threat: an analysis of the gum arabic market and cultivation in the Sudan
  • 2005
  • Ingår i: Agroforestry Systems. - Springer. - 1572-9680. ; 64:3, s. 211-218
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The main aim of this study is to review the environmental and socioeconomic sustainability of the gum arabic farming system in central Sudan. A further aim is to analyse some of the main factors influencing production in recent decades in order to understand the future trade potential and consequently the smallholder livelihood. The study shows that end-user imports of gum arabic have increased during recent decades. Gum arabic is mainly for uses such as soft drinks, confectionary, and pharmaceuticals. However, even with this increased demand the production in Sudan, the main country of production, is declining. The producers, mainly smallholders, suger from fluctuating prices. If the gum arabic farming system should be able to provide the environmental benefits of improved soil fertility and the socioeconomic benefits of risk spreading and dry season income opportunities, the prices paid to smallholders must be stabilized at a fair level, otherwise a shift to other crops or practices might take place.
  • Elmqvist, Bodil, et al. (författare)
  • Land use studies in drylands: an evaluation of object-oriented classification of very high resolution panchromatic imagery
  • 2008
  • Ingår i: International Journal of Remote Sensing. - Taylor & Francis. - 1366-5901. ; 29:24, s. 7129-7140
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Object-oriented classification approaches offer an alternative to per-pixel methods for assessment of land use and land cover. Combining object-oriented approaches with very high resolution imagery may provide enhanced possibilities for applications requiring land use and land cover data. The aim of this study is to evaluate the application of object-oriented classification of panchromatic very high resolution data in African drylands, where sizes and shapes of fields are varied, and intercropping practised, which might lead to difficulties in image segmentation. The results show that region-based segmentation is sensitive to the proportion of spectral and shape information and the best results were gained when the segmentation was based on predominately spectral information. The accuracy (Kappa value of 0.6) for the object-oriented classification was significantly higher than that for per-pixel classification. However, both the segmentation and the classification were time-consuming based on a trial and error process.
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