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  • Resultat 1-10 av 55
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  • Bager, Simon, et al. (författare)
  • Making ‘Smart Meters’ smarter? Insights from a behavioural economics pilot field experiment in Copenhagen, Denmark
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: Energy Research and Social Science. - Elsevier. - 2214-6296. ; 28, s. 68-76
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • This paper examines the relationship between loss aversion and consumer behaviour in a non-price policy intervention that followed the installation of smart meter (SM) technology. Drawing upon insights from behavioural economics, we propose that consumers underestimate potential gains and overestimate potential financial losses resulting from electricity use. To test the hypothesis, we carried out a pilot study involving the installation of SM technology in Copenhagen, Denmark. The analysis used two baselines, and the differential effects revealed that the provision of loss-framed, salient information reduced daily demand by 7–11%, compared to unframed information. Reductions in standby consumption were more pronounced, with a differential effect of 16–25%. Despite the limitations inherent in a pilot study, notably the small sample size, the findings suggest that policies that address SM technology need to consider not only the pure provision of information, but also how it is designed and presented to users. Several aspects for further research are identified.
  • Boutin, Jean-Philippe, et al. (författare)
  • Alternative energy sources in transition countries: The case of bio-energy in Ukraine
  • 2007
  • Ingår i: Environmental Engineering and Management Journal. - Gh. Asachi Technical University of Iasi, Romania. - 1582-9596. ; 6:1, s. 3-11
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • During the transition to a market economy, many countries with a planned economy in Central and Eastern Europe face similar challenges when the established socio-economic systems and infrastructures deemed inefficient in a market economy. Also new issues are being raised by the trends of globalization and the vision of sustainable development. In the energy sector the challenges raised by the Kyoto Protocol and its implementation mechanisms are especially interesting, because they are intertwined with other socio-economic sectors. This paper addresses the challenges in the energy sector for transition countries, taking the case of bio-energy in the Ukraine as a prime example of a country undergoing major changes in its economic structures. Given the large potential for bio-energy development in the Ukraine, the current dependence on imported energy resources which threatens the Ukraine's energy security, and the economic, social and environmental benefits associated with bio-energy, this paper investigates drivers and barriers to an increased use of bio-energy in the Ukraine. The paper was written by a group of MSc students of the International Institute for Industrial Environmental Economics at Lund University during a field trip to Kiev city and the Lviv region in Ukraine. The field trip has been supported by the Swedish Institute.
  • Collen, Wain Anthony, et al. (författare)
  • Building local institutions for national conservation programs: lessons for developing Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and Forest Degradation (REDD+) programs
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: Ecology and Society. - The Resilience Alliance. - 1708-3087. ; 21:2
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • ABSTRACT. For programs that aim to promote forest conservation and poverty alleviation, such as Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and Forest Degradation (REDD+), the participation of indigenous communities is essential to meet program goals. Using Ostrom's theory of collective action for common pool resource management, we evaluated the institutions governing indigenous participation in the Programa Socio Bosque incentive-based conservation program in Ecuador. We conducted structured interviews with 94 members in 4 communities to assess community institutions for 6 of Ostrom's principles, using 12 measures we developed for the principles. We found substantial variation between communities in terms of their institutional performance. The best-performing community performed well (>50% of interviewees reported successfully meeting the measure) on 8 of the 12 measures. The weakest performed well on only 2 out of 12 measures. Overall, our results indicate that there is stronger performance for constitutional-levelinstitutions, which determine who gets to make the rules, and some collective-choice institutions, which determine how local rules are made. We identified specific challenges with the day-to-day operational institutions that arise from participation in nation state–community conservation programs, such as restricted resource appropriation, monitoring and compliance, and conflict resolution. We found that top-down policy making has an important role to play in supporting communities to establish constitutional-level and some collective-choice institutions. However, developing operational institutions may take more time and depend on local families’ day-today use of resources, and thus may require a more nuanced policy approach. As some countries and donors find a jurisdictional REDD+ approach increasingly attractive, complementing top-down policy measures with bottom-up institutional development could provide a stronger platform to achieve the shift from current land use driving deforestation to a lower-carbon-emissions land management trajectory.
  • Farinelli, Ugo, et al. (författare)
  • "White and Green": Comparison of market-based instruments to promote energy efficiency
  • 2005
  • Ingår i: Journal of Cleaner Production. - Elsevier. - 0959-6526. ; 13:10-11, s. 1015-1026
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The "White and Green'' project completed under the EU SAVE Programme reviewed policies and measures to promote energy efficiency, which involved analysing the experience with instruments that are already implemented, and assessing innovative instruments that are proposed. In particular, the practicability of using ''White Certificates" energy efficiency) along the same lines as "Green Certificates" (renewable energy) was explored. Several of the policies. and measures, were simulated using technical-economic model of the MARKAL family. The results show that by 2020 it is possible to increase energy effiency by 15% at no cost without taking externalities into account. If externalities are considered, an increase of 30-35% with respect to the business-as-usual scenario is justified. The wealth of information obtained through the models and analysis provides a set of recommendations for policy-makers including: (1) the need for closer co-ordination between energy policies and environmental and climate policies; (2) the opportunity to establish more ambitious targets for energy efficiency; (3) the scope for increased EU co-ordination; (4) the extension of White Certificates to the medium and low energy-intensive industries; (5) the need to support White Certificates with accompanying actions, such as running information campaigns, promoting energy service companies, and, providing dedicated credit lines; (6) the need to develop similar instruments for transport and(7) the continuing need for energy research and development. (c) 2005 Published by Elsevier Ltd.
  • Farinelli, Ugo, et al. (författare)
  • "White and Green": Conclusions and Recommendations
  • 2005
  • Rapport (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • The move towards the liberalisation of the energy markets in the whole world and the general shift from command-and-control to market mechanisms bring forward new ways of stimulating initiatives to increase the efficiency in the final uses of energy and demand-side management. In the past, energy policies were implemented in most countries by direct action of the governments through state monopolies, prescriptive legislation and in some cases incentives. With the progressive advent of liberalisation of the energy market and privatisation of state companies, the emphasis has shifted toward a regulation of the market that introduces economic corrections to take into account collective interests (such as externalities) and long-term objectives, which generally are not taken into due account by market forces in the absence of corrective measures. Policies based on incentives have also shown their limits. As they rarely use market forces effectively, the results obtained tend to have a higher cost than necessary and they may bring to a non-optimal development of new technology. Recently, the emergence of other problems - as shown by the power crisis in Sweden, the insufficient assurance given by the system to security of supply, some concerns about the quality of the service - have prompted a reconsideration of the regulation of the energy market. In this context, it is important to consider the ways in which the increase of the share of energy supplied by renewable sources and the increase in the efficiency of energy utilisation can be promoted. These two measures are considered the mainframe of any sustainable energy strategy and necessary steps to contrast the threats of climate change.
  • Grubler, Arnulf, et al. (författare)
  • Energy Primer
  • 2012
  • Ingår i: Global Energy Assessment - Toward a Sustainable Future. - Cambridge University Press. - 9781-10700-5198 ; s. 99-150
  • Bokkapitel (refereegranskat)
  • Kiss, Bernadett, et al. (författare)
  • Exploring transaction costs in passive house-oriented retrofitting
  • 2014
  • Ingår i: [Host publication title missing]. - International Association for Energy Economics.
  • Konferensbidrag (refereegranskat)abstract
    • In order to tap the energy saving and climate mitigation potential of the building sector, transaction costs of implementing energy efficient technologies need to be better understood and ultimately reduced. The objective of this paper is to identify and analyze the nature and scale of transaction costs resulting from the application of the passive house concept in energy efficient renovations. Related conceptual choices are also discussed. Our study explores measures to promote learning and knowledge development as potential strategies to reduce transaction costs. It focuses on transaction costs borne by building owners and building developers in the planning and implementation phases of a passive house-oriented renovation in Sweden. Results reveal three main sources of transaction costs: due diligence, negotiations and monitoring. The analysis shows that transaction costs are non-negligible, and for individual cost sources the scale can be 200% higher than for conventional renovations. To reduce transaction costs, various strategies such as study visits, demonstration projects, new forms of meetings and new channels of (written) information were found.
  • Kiss, Bernadett, et al. (författare)
  • Policy Instruments for Energy Efficiency in Buildings: Experiences and Lessons from the Nordic Countries
  • 2010
  • Konferensbidrag (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The Nordic countries have often been seen as “fore-runners” of energy efficiency in buildings – in both the implementation of policy instruments and the evaluation of effects. Since the 1970s, the Nordic countries have introduced a range of policy instruments for energy conservation in buildings. The choice of instruments and experiences, however differs between countries. The aim of this study is to review policy instruments for energy efficiency in buildings in the Nordic countries as well as to analyse how to advance related learning processes. The study discusses traditional and innovative policy instruments, organisational matters, and policy evaluations. An overall observation from this study is that Sweden is “slowing down” its energy efficiency activities in the building sector, while Denmark, Finland and Norway are all “speeding up”. Denmark is leading the way on implementing policy instruments, which are long-term, strategic, innovative and well-supported by the organisational structure. This study also concludes that energy efficiency often lacks influential organisations to “drive” efforts forwards – in terms of information, networking, research and innovation. Finally, there is often no strategic approach to evaluations in the Nordic countries with a focus on how to improve learning.
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