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Sökning: hsv:(SAMHÄLLSVETENSKAP) hsv:(Annan samhällsvetenskap) hsv:(Tvärvetenskapliga studier) > Doktorsavhandling

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  • Stepanova, Olga, 1981- (författare)
  • Conflict resolution in coastal management: Interdisciplinary analyses of resource use conflicts from the Swedish coast
  • 2015
  • Doktorsavhandling (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • Natural resource use conflicts at urbanized coasts and their analysis and resolution are the main themes of this thesis. Based on the analysis of four conflict cases from the Swedish coast, I explore the ways the local management of coastal resources may be connected with a broader notion of sustainable resource management. Two questions guide this study. The first one is in regard to the theoretical and methodological development of coastal conflict research. It asks whether and how coastal conflicts can be analysed in an interdisciplinary manner. In answer to this research question, I developed an interdisciplinary conceptual framework for the analysis of local coastal conflicts. This framework is an example of the form that methodologies for interdisciplinary knowledge integration can take in a natural resource management study. The framework combined and integrated knowledge from different discourses and disciplines of environmental conflict research with the knowledge from empirical conflict studies and allowed for more integrated and complex conflict analysis. The second question is practice and management oriented and concerns how practical conflict resolution can be improved with sustainable coastal resource management as a goal. The findings highlight the importance combinations of formal and informal resolution strategies have, the key role of practices of knowledge use and the importance of power imbalances among stakeholders for conflict resolution. By setting out to link together the analyses of conflicts and conflict resolution in the practice of resource management and policy with the normative aspects of sustainable resource management, I highlight that interdisciplinary analyses of resource use conflicts and integrated approaches to conflict resolution should be incorporated in sustainable resource management and planning as a necessary part.
  • Ekström, Veronica, 1975- (författare)
  • Det besvärliga våldet Socialtjänstens stöd till kvinnor som utsatts för våld i nära relationer
  • 2016
  • Doktorsavhandling (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • I avhandlingen analyseras hur våldsutsatta kvinnors behov tolkas, omförhandlas och anpassas för att kunna hanteras inom socialtjänstens organisation. Avhandlingens övergripande frågeställningar fokuserar på insatser och behov, betydelsen av socialtjänstens organisering och betydelsen av socialarbetarnas handlingsutrymme. Avhandlingen baseras på kvalitativa analyser av statliga propositioner, intervjuer med socialarbetare och med kvinnor som varit utsatta för våld i nära relationer. Det teoretiska ramverket bygger bland annat på Frasers (1989) teoretiska perspektiv som tar sin utgångspunkt i samhällets tolkningar av människors/gruppers behov av stöd, nyinstitutionell teori och teorier om gatubyråkrater. Avhandlingen visar att socialarbetares tolkningar är centrala aspekter av förhandlingen om hur våldsutsatta kvinnors behov och rätt till stöd ska förstås. Ett viktigt resultat i avhandlingen är att stödet till våldsutsatta kvinnor blir så pass olika. Avhandlingen ger inga svar i kvantitativa termer på hur olikheten är fördelad, men den ger exempel på hur olikheten tar sig uttryck. I kommuner där specialiseringen innebär att socialarbetarna på socialkontoret i första hand utreder behov och fattar beslut om insatser, måste det också finnas adekvata insatser att besluta om. Saknas det så erbjuds inte heller något stöd. Stödet till kvinnor som utsatts för våld i nära relationer blir också olika eftersom socialarbetare ställer olika krav eller sätter upp olika trösklar för att kvinnor ska få stöd. Avhandlingen visar att både gemensam kunskap och gemensam syn på sociala problem är centralt för att samarbetet inom den specialiserade socialtjänstens ska fungera och i längden också för vilket stöd människor kommer att erbjudas.
  • Otto, Opira (författare)
  • Trust, identity and beer
  • 2013
  • Doktorsavhandling (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • This thesis explores the role and influence of institutions on agricultural labour transactions in Isunga village in Kiryandongo District, Midwestern Uganda. It primarily focuses on how farmers structure, maintain and enforce their labour relationships during crop farming. The study is based on semi-structured interviews of twenty households and unstructured interviews with representatives of farmers associations. These interviews show that other than household labour, the other common labour arrangements in the village include farm work sharing, labour exchanges and casual wage labour. Farm work sharing and labour exchanges involve farmers temporarily pooling their labour into work groups to complete tasks such as planting, weeding or harvesting crops on members' farms in succession. This is done under strict rules and rewarded with 'good' beer and food. Against this background, the study asks what institutions really are, why they matter and what we can learn about them. Literature suggests that institutions influence labour transactions by their effects on transaction costs and the protection of contractual rights. However, literature does not suggest which institutions are best for agricultural labour transactions. Taking institutions to be the 'rules of the game', with farmers as 'players' who strategically use these rules to their advantage, the study focused on the interaction between institutions and farmers. The major findings of the study are: (a) farmers' choices of institutions are influenced by the characteristics of transactions, the costs of using institutions for handling labour dealings, the fairness and predictability of the outcome of contract enforcement mechanisms, and socio-cultural factors such as kin/ethnic status, morality and affection, (b) formal institutions in Isunga are either weak, ineffective or absent. So, farmers rely heavily on institutions embedded in social norms and networks to structure their transactional relationships, to ensure the performance of the respective parties, and to settle disputes if they arise. The study concludes that agricultural labour transactions in Isunga involve judgements of personal characteristics and social roles expressed as reputation and trustworthiness.
  • Hasic, Tigran, 1969- (författare)
  • Reconstruction planning in post-conflict zones Bosnia and Herzegovina and the international community
  • 2004
  • Doktorsavhandling (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • The history of mankind has been plagued by an almost continuous chain of various armed conflicts - local, regional, national and global - that have caused horrendous damage to the social and physical fabric of cities. The tragedy of millions deprived by war still continues. This study sets out to understand the nature of reconstruction after war in the light of recent armed conflicts. It attempts to catalogue and discuss the tasks involved in the process of reconstruction planning by establishing a conceptual framework of the main issues in the reconstruction process. The case of Bosnia and Herzegovina is examined in detail and on the whole acts as the leit-motif of the whole dissertation and positions reconstruction in the broader context of sustainable development. The study is organized into two parts that constitute the doctoral aggregate dissertation – a combining of papers with an introductory monograph. In this case the introductory monograph is an extended one and there are six papers that follow. Both sections can be read on their own merits but also constitute one entity.The rebuilding of war-devastated countries and communities can be seen as a series of nonintegrated activities carried out (and often imposed) by international agencies and governments, serving political and other agendas. The result is that calamities of war are often accompanied by the calamities of reconstruction without any regard to sustainable development. The body of knowledge related to post-conflict reconstruction lacks a strong and cohesive theory. In order to better understand the process of reconstruction we present a qualitative inquiry based on the Grounded Theory Method developed originally by Barney Glaser and Anselm Strauss (1967). This approach utilizes a complex conceptualization with empirical evidence to produce theoretical structure. The results of process have evolved into the development of a conceptual model, called SCOPE (Sustainable Communities in Post-conflict Environments).This study proposes both a structure within which to examine post-conflict reconstruction and provides an implementation method. We propose to use the SCOPE model as a set of strategy, policy and program recommendations to assist the international community and all relevant decision-makers to ensure that the destruction and carnage of war does not have to be followed by a disaster of post-conflict reconstruction. We also offer to provide a new foundation and paradigm on post-conflict reconstruction, which incorporates and integrates a number of approaches into a multidisciplinary and systems thinking manner in order to better understand the complexity and dependencies of issues at hand. We believe that such a systems approach could better be able to incorporate the complexities involved and would offer much better results than the approaches currently in use.The final section of this study returns to the fact that although it is probably impossible to produce universal answers, we desperately need to find commonalities amongst different postconflict reconstruction settings in order to better deal with the reconstruction planning in a more dynamic, proactive, and sustainable manner.
  • Vesterberg, Viktor (författare)
  • Ethnicizing Employability Governing the Unemployed in Labour Market Projects in Sweden
  • 2016
  • Doktorsavhandling (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • I avhandlingen studeras arbetsmarknadspolitiska åtgärder, i form av projekt finansierade av Europeiska socialfonden (ESF), riktade mot arbetslösa migranter och etnifierade grupper. Analysen är kvalitativ, diskursorienterad och utgår från Foucaults begrepp governmentality. Mer specifikt belyses hur projektens målgrupper etnifieras genom diskurser om anställningsbarhet och lärande. Avhandlingen består av fyra artiklar. I de tre första artiklarna fokuseras främst hur projekten framställer sig själva genom projektbeskrivningar i ESFs projektbank och den fjärde artikeln utgår främst från etnografiskt material. Sammantaget belyser avhandlingen olika aspekter - som kan ses som problematiska och ibland motsägelsefulla - av inkluderingsarbete riktat mot migranter och etnifierade målgrupper. Det handlar om tendenser att individualisera arbetslösheten och därmed i hög grad ansvariggöra de arbetslösa projektdeltagarna för sin situation. Det handlar också om att använda kultur och etnicitet på ett sätt som riskerar att förstärka målgruppernas ’annorlundahet’ i relation till den ’svenskhet’ som inte sällan blir synonymt med vad som uppfattas som normalt och på så sätt vidga gapet mellan ’vi’ och ’dem’ när den uttalade målsättningen är det motsatta. Avhandlingen kan fungera som en utgångspunkt för att reflektera kring hur inkluderingsinsatser och arbetsmarknadsprojekt riskerar att sortera och kategorisera människor på olika sätt, som kan vara problematiska i relation till vad insatserna vill uppnå.
  • Ewertsson, Lena, 1964- (författare)
  • The Triumph of Technology Over Politics? Reconstructing Television Systems: The Example of Sweden
  • 2001
  • Doktorsavhandling (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • Based upon perspectives and concepts from social and historical research on technical systems, this dissertation describes and analyses events and processes relating to the dramatic change in television in Western Europe during the 1980s and early 1990s. In particular, it focuses on how Swedish television, conceived as a large socio-tecnical system, has shifted from a traditional 'public service' system to a more open and mixed system. In addition to traditional public television broadcasting, it has now come to encompass several commercial channels distributed through an expanding combination of technical and market alternatives, including satellite television. The study traces the multiple ways in which socio-historical processes and contingencies have shaped the television system in Sweden. The most detailed historical descriptions and analyses focus on the entrepreneurial activities of the Swedish firm, Industriförvaltning AB Kinnevik, documenting the introduction of the satellite channel TV3 in Sweden and the related expansion of the system. The entrepreneurial actions of Kinnevik in establishing the new satellite channel TV3 are analysed against the background of (1) the characteristics of the traditional Swedish radio and TV broadcasting system, (2) the development of cable television in Sweden, and (3) the broad history of satellite television.Emphasis is placed on how and why it was possible for a new actor to successfully challenge, gain access to, and help transform a well-established system that had remained relatively stable for a long time. This raises attendant questions of timing. How do we account for and explain the relative stability of this system for such a long period? Why did radical change occur at a particular time and not before or after? Whereas the empirical material concerning the activities of Kinnevik in relation to its entrance on the television market covers the period between 1984 and 1991, the study in general addresses developments throughout the twentieth century and, occasionally, even further back in history. The focus is thus on the system as a whole, rather than on only one of its components.A number of conclusions are drawn from the study concerning both the construction of new systems and the reconstruction of established systems. Two major conclusions can be mentioned here. (1) First, the historical material confirms the necessity of collective action in large-scale technology-based entrepreneurial action. (2) Second, the study also shows that there is nothing necessary or inevitable about the development of technologies/technological systems, even though they are subject to a high degree of path-dependence.
  • Havugimana, Emmanuel, 1956- (författare)
  • State policies and livelihoods - Rwandan Human Settlement Policy. Case Study of Ngera and Nyagahuru Villages
  • 2009
  • Doktorsavhandling (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • Through a case study of two villages of the Southern Province of Rwanda, this thesis explores the effects on Rwanda National Settlement Policy on the livelihoods of the rural population. With today 344 inhabitants per km², Rwanda has the highest population densities of Sub-Saharan Africa. Subsistence agriculture is the mainstay for more than 90 percent of the population. Since 1997, Rwanda has undertaken a controversial policy of grouping people in villages whereas rural traditional habitat is that of scattered homesteads on the hills’ slopes. The rationale of the policy is dealing of high demographic pressure on little arable land. Grouping people in villages would free more land for cultivation. But the policy is also profoundly rooted in the history of the country for the last half century. Between 1952 and 1972, experiences of agricultural modernization were conducted through the so-called paysannats. A villagisation experiment was tried in 1970es-1980es in pilot villages without much success. The new habitat policy is like a continuation of those past experiences. However, the new policy was mainly driven by the genocide of 1994 and its aftermaths. Tutsi returnees after more than three decades in exile and genocide survivors whose houses were destroyed needed a safe place to stay when the genocide ended in July 1994. Some occupied properties of Hutu who left the country in the wake of RPF victory fearing reprisals. When Hutu returnees were forced back home in 1996-1997, the government needed to find a way to address the property issue, to avoid further sociopolitical violence. Analyzing the cases of Ngera and Nyagahuru, two villages of the southern Province constructed by the Belgian Cooperation in 1998-2000, the thesis indicates the vulnerability situation of imidugudu villages’ dwellers. A high rate of women headed households, direct consequence of the genocide, scarce natural resources, weakness of social institutions and little possibility of non farm activities are important elements which need to be taken into consideration to make a decent living for all. The government of Rwanda has initiated other policies closely related to Human Settlement Policy like Agricultural Policy, Land Policy and Environmental Policy. The thesis examines important aspects of those policies which influence the livelihoods of “imidugudu” dwellers. The thesis ends suggesting some other possible ways of rural development which should be explored.
  • Littmarck, Sofia, 1983- (författare)
  • Barn, föräldrar, välfärdsstat Den politiska debatten om föräldrautbildning och föräldrastöd 1964-2009
  • 2017
  • Doktorsavhandling (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • I den här avhandlingen granskas den politiska debatten om föräldrautbildning och föräldrastöd mellan 1964 och 2009 i ljuset av välfärdssamhällets utveckling och förändring. Studien bygger på en analys av betänkanden från statliga utredningar och riksdagstryck i frågan om föräldrautbildning och föräldrastöd. I studien granskas vilka vägval i organiseringen av välfärden kring barn och familj som politiska aktörer har argumenterat för och vilken syn på relationerna mellan barn, föräldrar, familj och välfärdsstat som kommit till uttryck i argumentationen. Föräldrautbildning och föräldrastöd syftar till att förändra barns villkor genom att påverka föräldrarna. Analysen visar att intresset för denna typ av åtgärd har delats av såväl vänster som borgerliga, men utifrån skilda argument och politiska visioner för hur välfärden kring barn och barnfamiljen ska organiseras, såväl som utifrån olika sätt att se på föräldrautbildningens och föräldrastödets roll i välfärden.
  • Mannergren Selimovic, Johanna, 1966- (författare)
  • Remembering and Forgetting after War. Narratives of truth, justice and reconciliation in a Bosnian town
  • 2010
  • Doktorsavhandling (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • ABSTRACT Mannergren Selimovic, Johanna (2010), Remembering and Forgetting after War. Narratives of truth, justice and reconciliation in a Bosnian town PhD Dissertation in Peace and Development Research, School of Global Studies, University of Gothenburg, P.O. Box 700, 405 30 Göteborg, Sweden Language: English, with summary in Swedish ISBN 978-91-628-8212-9 http://hdl.handle.net/2077/23838 This PhD dissertation sets out to deepen our understanding of how people make everyday strategies for living together after mass atrocities, and what role transitional justice may play for these strategies. The aim is to investigate the meanings of the contested concepts of truth, justice and reconciliation in a postconflict setting. The study critically scrutinizes central claims of the transitional justice and reconciliation paradigm and shows that measures for transitional justice cannot just be inserted into a passively receiving local context, but are always enfolded into ongoing local power struggles. The thesis is based on a qualitative case study consisting of 53 open interviews as well as participatory observation in the small town of Foča in Bosnia-Herzegovina. The analysis explores local narratives of truth, justice and reconciliation, and their encounter with the International Criminal Tribunal for Former Yugoslavia (ICTY). The findings show that the informants in Foča employed a multitude of strategies for living with the other in a deeply ethnopolitical setting. In this complex and discordant local world, the ICTY was used in different ways and produced processes that often differed from the intended outcome. The theoretical and methodological design of the study along the lines of a narrative enquiry accesses central issues of identity and power. The struggle between acknowledgement and knowledge, individual justice and narratives of collective innocence, silences and remembrance practices, are some of the tensions explored. The insights indicate that reconciliation should theoretically be understood as an ongoing, messy and contradictory process. The study suggests that, to the extent that measures for transitional justice can take part in the construction of a social arena where exchange of plural meanings is possible, it may play a positive part in the building of sustainable peace. Keywords: transitional justice, reconciliation, ICTY, Bosnia and Herzegovina, narrative theory, memory, identity
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