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  • Resultat 1-10 av 4242
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  • Arias-Schreiber, Milena, et al. (författare)
  • Addressing social sustainability for small-scale fisheries in Sweden: Institutional barriers for implementing the small-scale fisheries guidelines.
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: The Small-Scale Fisheries Guidelines. Global Implementation.. - Springer Verlag. ; s. 717-736
  • Bokkapitel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Swedish coastal fisheries are not sustainable in terms of the status of their main fish stocks, their economic profitability, and as source of regular employment. Social sustainability commitments in fisheries governance advocated by the SSF Guidelines have been so far mostly neglected. In this chapter, we bring attention to two institutional settings at different governance levels relevant for the implementation of the SSF Guidelines in the Swedish context. First, we look at the introduction of social goals under the perspective of the EU’s Common Fisheries Policy (CFP). Second, we consider national tensions between forces advocating or opposing a further application of market-based economic instruments, often portrayed as an effective cure for all ills, in fisheries governance. Taking into account the logic on which the SSF Guidelines rest, we evaluate in both cases current processes for stakeholder participation in the formulation of fishing policies and strategies in Sweden. We conclude that the inclusion of a social dimension and stakeholder involvement at the EU level face procedural and institutional limitations that prevent the SSF sector from exploiting opportunities for change. Further challenges to the implementation of the SSF Guidelines arise when central national authorities’ interpretation of societal benefits opposes other interpretations, and consequently economic calculations take precedence over a participatory process-based, knowledge-accumulating approach to resource management. The SSF Guidelines, therefore, provide important material and intellectual resources to make the most of new chances that can lead to an increased likelihood of change in the direction of sustainable coastal fisheries in Sweden.
  • Hallonsten, Olof (författare)
  • How expensive is Big Science? Consequences of using simple publication counts in performance assessment of large scientific facilities
  • 2014
  • Ingår i: Scientometrics. - 0138-9130. ; 100:2, s. 483-496.
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Although the nuclear era and the Cold War superpower competition have long since passed, governments are still investing in Big Science, although these large facilities are nowadays mostly geared towards areas of use closer to utility. Investments in Big Science are also motivated not only by promises of scientific breakthroughs but also by expectations (and demands) of measurable impact, and with an emerging global market of competing user-oriented Big Science facilities, quantitative measures of productivity and quality have become mainstream. Among these are rather simple and one-sided publication counts. This article uses publication counts and figures of expenditure for three cases that are disparate but all represent the state-of-the-art of Big Science of their times, discussing at depth the problems of using simple publication counts as a measure of performance in science. Showing, quite trivially, that Big Science is very expensive, the article also shows the absurd consequences of consistently using simple publication counts to display productivity and quality of Big Science, and concludes that such measures should be deemed irrelevant for analyses on the level of organizations in science and replaced by qualitative assessment of the content of the science produced.
  • Gender issues in learning and working with information technology: social constructs and cultural contexts
  • 2010
  • Samlingsverk (redaktörskap) (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • Gender Differences in Learning and Working with Technology: Social Constructs and Cultural Contexts discusses the social studies of information technology, specifically how IT skills are learned and how such skills are gendered. This book draws upon the disciplines of sociology, education, cultural and media studies, and gender studies, using a variety of research methods and theoretical perspectives to approach gender and IT in different contexts: education settings, work settings and everyday life. This unique reference source brings to light gender relations and IT, examining them in a multidimensional way. Gender, equity, learning, and information technology can intersect to form a theoretical and abstract field of knowledge emanating from very real, concrete, lived experiences.
  • Andersson, Johnn, 1983-, et al. (författare)
  • The critical role of informed political direction for advancing technology : The case of Swedish marine energy
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: Energy Policy. - Elsevier. - 1873-6777. ; 101, s. 52-64
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Marine energy technologies can contribute to meeting sustainability challenges, but they are still immature and dependent on public support. This paper employs the Technological Innovation Systems (TIS) framework to analyze the development and diffusion of Swedish marine energy up until 2014. While there were promising device developers, relevant industrial capabilities, and world-class research, the system suffered from weaknesses in several important innovation processes. Finally, the analysis identifies the lack of informed political direction as a critical blocking factor and highlights its connection to domestic market potential.
  • Boholm, Åsa, et al. (författare)
  • The practice of risk governance: lessons from the field
  • 2012
  • Ingår i: Journal of Risk Research. - 1366-9877. ; 15:1, s. 1-20
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • In contradistinction to generic and formal risk governance models such as the IRGC framework, this paper advocates the relevance of a contextual and practice-based approach to organizational risk governance. Three cases illustrate the socially situated dynamics of risk governance practice: public transportation management, river management, and railway planning. Risk governance is shown to derive from how actors, in their daily activities, mediate multi-level and regulatory institutional constraints, and solve actual problems through routines, trust, mutual understanding and not least, shared commitment to the societal role of infrastructure. Our findings underscore that risk governance takes place in contexts that are historically, spatially and institutionally situated. We therefore suggest that one needs to pay attention to the characteristics of this contextuality to understand the social dynamics of governance.
  • Göransson, Bo, et al. (författare)
  • Long waves and information technologies - on the transition towards the information society
  • 2005
  • Ingår i: Technovation. - Elsevier. - 1879-2383. ; 25:3, s. 203-211
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • In this paper we argue that Long Wave Theory provides a useful conceptual tool for understanding the transition from the industrial to the, post-industrial economy. While economic theories struggle to fully explain the structural changes involved in the shift towards the information economy, long wave theory offers a promising avenue for understanding the complex relationship between technology and economic development. However, a central aspect of long wave theory-the key factor-is still ambiguously dealt with in the theory and in need of further refinement. We argue that the role of the key factor in long wave theory goes beyond providing economic signals in a technological system as contended by some proponents of long wave theory. Only to a secondary, and diminishing, degree, will the key factor serve as an economic indicator in an economy progressing towards less dependence on raw material and more on application of knowledge-intensive and regenerative technologies. Considered in this way, the future pattern of long waves is more likely to be accentuated than to abate.
  • Hallonsten, Olof, et al. (författare)
  • From particle physics to photon science: Multi-dimensional and multi-level renewal at DESY and SLAC
  • 2013
  • Ingår i: Science and Public Policy. - 0302-3427 .- 1471-5430. ; 40:5, s. 591-603
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Studies of institutional transformation in science have largely overlooked Big Science installations, despite far-reaching changes to the roles and functions of such large labs in the past decades. Here, we present and analyze two Big Science labs that have undergone profound transformations from single-purpose particle physics labs to multi-purpose centers for so-called photon science: SLAC in the USA and DESY in Germany. We provide brief historic accounts of the labs and an analysis of the processes of change on different levels and from different aspects informed by a theoretical framework of institutional change in science. Thus, we describe the relevance of the study of Big Science labs from the perspective of institutional change and in terms of science policy/management. We also prove the aptness of the framework used and pave the way for a detailed analysis of particular forces of change and their interrelatedness.
  • Hallonsten, Olof (författare)
  • Growing Big Science in a Small Country MAX-lab and the Swedish Research Policy System
  • 2011
  • Ingår i: Historical Studies in the Natural Sciences. - 1939-1811. ; 41:2, s. 179-215
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • MAX-lab is a Swedish national synchrotron radiation facility, first established as a small-scale university project in the late 1970s and then gradually developed into a national and international user facility. This article presents a historical study of MAXlab that illustrates the decentralized character of the Swedish science policy system and especially its lack of aggregation mechanisms for strategically important initiatives such as the establishment of large research infrastructures. The dominating university sector and the absence of strong central governance structures have made Swedish science policy pluralistic, driven from the bottom up, and decentralized. The genesis and development of MAX-lab, while remarkable when compared to other such facilities internationally, is symptomatically Swedish-it has grown from the bottom up and step by step, and thereby managed to become a respected national and international user facility despite unfavorable conditions. The patchy funding model and the lack of coherent policymaking has led to underfunding and an opaque organizational structure, but MAX-lab and its users have nonetheless been of high quality. This article argues that the determination, patience, adaptivity, and, to some extent, ingenuity of the people involved in MAX-lab have compensated for systemic shortcomings and enabled the laboratory to succeed despite the unfavorable conditions.
  • Hallonsten, Olof (författare)
  • How scientists may ‘benefit from the mess’: A resource dependence perspective on individual organizing in contemporary science.
  • 2014
  • Ingår i: Social Science Information. - 0539-0184. ; 53:3, s. 341-362
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • There is general consensus in the study of science, and especially research policy studies, that a wave of profound change has struck academic science in the past decades. Central parts of this change are increased competition, growing demands of relevance and excellence, and managerialism reforms in institutions and policy systems. The underpinning thesis of this article is that, if seen from the perspective of individual scientists, these changes are exogenous and lead to greater environmental complexity and uncertainty, which in turn induces or forces individuals towards strategic planning and organizing in order to maintain control over their own research programs. Recent empirical studies have made various worthy contributions to the understanding of the macro-level (institutions, policy and funding systems, and broader epistemic developments) and the micro-level (individual and group behavior) developments of the social system of science, but there is a lack of comprehensive conceptual tools for analysis of change and its effect on individual scientists. This article takes the first steps towards developing a conceptual scheme for use in empirical studies of the (strategic) response of individual scientists to exogenous change, based on an adaptation of Resource Dependence Theory (RDT). The intended theoretical contribution builds on conceptualization of the individual researcher as crucially able to act rationally and strategically in the face of potentially conflicting demands from a growingly unpredictable environment. Defining a basic framework for a broad future research program, the article   adds to the knowledge about the recent changes to the academic research system and calls for renewed interest in organizing in science and an analysis of the complex social system of science from the perspective of its smallest performing units: individuals.
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