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Sökning: hsv:(SAMHÄLLSVETENSKAP) hsv:(Annan samhällsvetenskap) hsv:(Tvärvetenskapliga studier) > Lunds universitet

  • Resultat 1-10 av 4142
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1.
  • Hallonsten, Olof (författare)
  • How expensive is Big Science? Consequences of using simple publication counts in performance assessment of large scientific facilities
  • 2014
  • Ingår i: Scientometrics. - 0138-9130. ; 100:2, s. 483-496.
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Although the nuclear era and the Cold War superpower competition have long since passed, governments are still investing in Big Science, although these large facilities are nowadays mostly geared towards areas of use closer to utility. Investments in Big Science are also motivated not only by promises of scientific breakthroughs but also by expectations (and demands) of measurable impact, and with an emerging global market of competing user-oriented Big Science facilities, quantitative measures of productivity and quality have become mainstream. Among these are rather simple and one-sided publication counts. This article uses publication counts and figures of expenditure for three cases that are disparate but all represent the state-of-the-art of Big Science of their times, discussing at depth the problems of using simple publication counts as a measure of performance in science. Showing, quite trivially, that Big Science is very expensive, the article also shows the absurd consequences of consistently using simple publication counts to display productivity and quality of Big Science, and concludes that such measures should be deemed irrelevant for analyses on the level of organizations in science and replaced by qualitative assessment of the content of the science produced.
2.
  • Gender issues in learning and working with information technology: social constructs and cultural contexts
  • 2010
  • Samlingsverk (redaktörskap) (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • Gender Differences in Learning and Working with Technology: Social Constructs and Cultural Contexts discusses the social studies of information technology, specifically how IT skills are learned and how such skills are gendered. This book draws upon the disciplines of sociology, education, cultural and media studies, and gender studies, using a variety of research methods and theoretical perspectives to approach gender and IT in different contexts: education settings, work settings and everyday life. This unique reference source brings to light gender relations and IT, examining them in a multidimensional way. Gender, equity, learning, and information technology can intersect to form a theoretical and abstract field of knowledge emanating from very real, concrete, lived experiences.
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3.
  • Andersson, Johnn, 1983-, et al. (författare)
  • The critical role of informed political direction for advancing technology : The case of Swedish marine energy
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: Energy Policy. - Elsevier. - 1873-6777. ; 101, s. 52-64
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Marine energy technologies can contribute to meeting sustainability challenges, but they are still immature and dependent on public support. This paper employs the Technological Innovation Systems (TIS) framework to analyze the development and diffusion of Swedish marine energy up until 2014. While there were promising device developers, relevant industrial capabilities, and world-class research, the system suffered from weaknesses in several important innovation processes. Finally, the analysis identifies the lack of informed political direction as a critical blocking factor and highlights its connection to domestic market potential.
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4.
  • Bengtsson, A, et al. (författare)
  • Outdoor environments at three nursing homes – Focus group interviews with staff.
  • 2006
  • Ingår i: Journal of Housing for the Elderly. - Haworth Press. - 0276-3893. ; 19:3-4, s. 49-69
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • This study investigated how the outdoor environments at nursing homes for older persons were experienced and used to gain knowledge with implications for design. Focus group methodology was used to explore staff's view of how the residents experienced and used the outdoors. Two main themes and ten sub-themes were the result when the focus group interviews were analyzed. Theme one, being comfortable in the outdoor environment, describe the residents' special needs to be able to and dare to use the outdoors. The theme suggests a precautionary design, which promotes security and safety and protects from disturbance and negative impressions. The second main theme, access to surrounding life, describes the residents' needs for change and variety in Elderly, older, outdoor environment, health design, universal design, landscape planning
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5.
  • Bergek, Anna, et al. (författare)
  • Analyzing the functional dynamics of technological innovation systems: A scheme of analysis
  • 2008
  • Ingår i: Research Policy. - 0048-7333. ; 37:3, s. 407-429
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Various researchers and policy analysts have made empirical studies of innovation systems in order to understand their current structure and trace their dynamics. However, policy makers often experience difficulties in extracting practical guidelines from studies of this kind. In this paper, we operationalize our previous work on a functional approach to analyzing innovation system dynamics into a practical scheme of analysis for policy makers. The scheme is based on previous literature and our own experience in developing and applying functional thinking. It can be used by policy makers not only to identify the key policy issues but also to set policy goals. © 2007 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
6.
  • Boholm, Åsa, et al. (författare)
  • The practice of risk governance: lessons from the field
  • 2012
  • Ingår i: Journal of Risk Research. - 1366-9877. ; 15:1, s. 1-20
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • In contradistinction to generic and formal risk governance models such as the IRGC framework, this paper advocates the relevance of a contextual and practice-based approach to organizational risk governance. Three cases illustrate the socially situated dynamics of risk governance practice: public transportation management, river management, and railway planning. Risk governance is shown to derive from how actors, in their daily activities, mediate multi-level and regulatory institutional constraints, and solve actual problems through routines, trust, mutual understanding and not least, shared commitment to the societal role of infrastructure. Our findings underscore that risk governance takes place in contexts that are historically, spatially and institutionally situated. We therefore suggest that one needs to pay attention to the characteristics of this contextuality to understand the social dynamics of governance.
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7.
  • Göransson, Bo, et al. (författare)
  • Long waves and information technologies - on the transition towards the information society
  • 2005
  • Ingår i: Technovation. - Elsevier. - 1879-2383. ; 25:3, s. 203-211
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • In this paper we argue that Long Wave Theory provides a useful conceptual tool for understanding the transition from the industrial to the, post-industrial economy. While economic theories struggle to fully explain the structural changes involved in the shift towards the information economy, long wave theory offers a promising avenue for understanding the complex relationship between technology and economic development. However, a central aspect of long wave theory-the key factor-is still ambiguously dealt with in the theory and in need of further refinement. We argue that the role of the key factor in long wave theory goes beyond providing economic signals in a technological system as contended by some proponents of long wave theory. Only to a secondary, and diminishing, degree, will the key factor serve as an economic indicator in an economy progressing towards less dependence on raw material and more on application of knowledge-intensive and regenerative technologies. Considered in this way, the future pattern of long waves is more likely to be accentuated than to abate.
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8.
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9.
  • Hallonsten, Olof, et al. (författare)
  • Analyzing structural stratification in the Swedish higher education system : : data contextualization with policy-history analysis
  • 2013
  • Ingår i: Journal of the American Society for Information Science and Technology. - John Wiley & Sons. - 1532-2890. ; 64:3, s. 574-586
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • 20th century massification of higher education and research in academia is said to have produced structurally stratified higher education systems in many countries. Most manifestly, the research mission of universities appears to be divisive. Authors have claimed that the Swedish system, while formally unified, has developed into a binary state, and statistics seem to support this conclusion. This article makes use of a comprehensive statistical data source on Swedish higher education institutions to illustrate stratification, and uses literature on Swedish research policy history to contextualize the statistics. Highlighting the opportunities as well as constraints of the data, the article argues that there is great merit in combining statistics with a qualitative analysis when studying the structural characteristics of national higher education systems. Not least the article shows that it is an over-simplification to describe the Swedish system as binary; the stratification is more complex. On basis of the analysis, the article also argues that while global trends certainly influence national developments, higher education systems have country-specific features that may enrich the understanding of how systems evolve and therefore should be analyzed as part of a broader study of the increasingly globalized academic system.
10.
  • Hallonsten, Olof, et al. (författare)
  • Commissioning the University of Excellence Swedish research policy and new public research funding programmes
  • 2012
  • Ingår i: Quality in Higher Education. - 1353-8322. - 13538322 (ISSN) ; 18:3, s. 367-381
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • In many countries, current research policy is dominated by managerialism and excellence, manifesting the aim of making universities into national strategic assets in the globally competitive knowledge economy. This article discusses these policy trends and their mirror in recent developments in public funding for academic research, with special attention to Sweden. A review of the language in three consecutive Swedish governmental research bills from the past 10 years shows a clear policy shift towards the promotion of excellence and strategic priority on the level of higher education institutions. Reforms to the funding system, especially the launch of specific strategic excellence funding programmes, are introduced to put the policy in practice. While the policy shift itself might be discursive, the changes to the funding system clearly show a determination on behalf of the Swedish government to increase strategic profiling and the pursuit of excellence in research on behalf of universities. © 2012 Copyright Taylor and Francis Group, LLC.
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