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Sökning: hsv:(SAMHÄLLSVETENSKAP) hsv:(Annan samhällsvetenskap) hsv:(Tvärvetenskapliga studier) > Lunds universitet

  • Resultat 1-10 av 4354
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1.
  • Arias-Schreiber, Milena, et al. (författare)
  • Addressing social sustainability for small-scale fisheries in Sweden: Institutional barriers for implementing the small-scale fisheries guidelines.
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: The Small-Scale Fisheries Guidelines. Global Implementation.. - Springer Verlag. ; s. 717-736
  • Bokkapitel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Swedish coastal fisheries are not sustainable in terms of the status of their main fish stocks, their economic profitability, and as source of regular employment. Social sustainability commitments in fisheries governance advocated by the SSF Guidelines have been so far mostly neglected. In this chapter, we bring attention to two institutional settings at different governance levels relevant for the implementation of the SSF Guidelines in the Swedish context. First, we look at the introduction of social goals under the perspective of the EU’s Common Fisheries Policy (CFP). Second, we consider national tensions between forces advocating or opposing a further application of market-based economic instruments, often portrayed as an effective cure for all ills, in fisheries governance. Taking into account the logic on which the SSF Guidelines rest, we evaluate in both cases current processes for stakeholder participation in the formulation of fishing policies and strategies in Sweden. We conclude that the inclusion of a social dimension and stakeholder involvement at the EU level face procedural and institutional limitations that prevent the SSF sector from exploiting opportunities for change. Further challenges to the implementation of the SSF Guidelines arise when central national authorities’ interpretation of societal benefits opposes other interpretations, and consequently economic calculations take precedence over a participatory process-based, knowledge-accumulating approach to resource management. The SSF Guidelines, therefore, provide important material and intellectual resources to make the most of new chances that can lead to an increased likelihood of change in the direction of sustainable coastal fisheries in Sweden.
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2.
  • Hallonsten, Olof (författare)
  • How expensive is Big Science? Consequences of using simple publication counts in performance assessment of large scientific facilities
  • 2014
  • Ingår i: Scientometrics. - 0138-9130. ; 100:2, s. 483-496.
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Although the nuclear era and the Cold War superpower competition have long since passed, governments are still investing in Big Science, although these large facilities are nowadays mostly geared towards areas of use closer to utility. Investments in Big Science are also motivated not only by promises of scientific breakthroughs but also by expectations (and demands) of measurable impact, and with an emerging global market of competing user-oriented Big Science facilities, quantitative measures of productivity and quality have become mainstream. Among these are rather simple and one-sided publication counts. This article uses publication counts and figures of expenditure for three cases that are disparate but all represent the state-of-the-art of Big Science of their times, discussing at depth the problems of using simple publication counts as a measure of performance in science. Showing, quite trivially, that Big Science is very expensive, the article also shows the absurd consequences of consistently using simple publication counts to display productivity and quality of Big Science, and concludes that such measures should be deemed irrelevant for analyses on the level of organizations in science and replaced by qualitative assessment of the content of the science produced.
3.
  • Kronsell, Annica, et al. (författare)
  • Achieving Climate Objectives in Transport Policy by Including Women and Challenging Gender Norms – the Swedish case
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: International Journal of Sustainable Transportation. - Taylor & Francis. - 1556-8334. ; 10:8, s. 703-711
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • This paper explores whether women can become the change agents for a sustainable transport sector and how such a change can be accomplished through transport policy. Based on the Swedish case, women still on average have transportation behaviour with lower environmental impact than men have; women also tend to have stronger preferences for improving sustainability in the sector. The results imply that there are interesting behaviour and attitude characteristics expressed by women that ought to be recognised and applied e.g. through contesting prevailing norms and methods, in order to achieve sustainability goals for the sector. Altogether this suggests that women, beyond democracy reasons, should become more active as change agents to challenge the dominant male norms. Policy implications of these findings include measures to improve gender equal participation would e.g. make it possible to take advantage of these differences. Putting more emphasis on the relationships between travel patterns, sustainability and gendering on all levels in transportation planning as a measure for improved sustainability. Implementing new ways of framing the problems to be solved, challenging existing norms working against gender equity and raising consciousness of sustainability issues. Using gender mainstreaming to monitor policy impacts on different groups of men and women. However, today there is a lack of incentives to apply these tools. Since there is a tremendous complexity in the relationships on all levels, more research is needed together with improved dissemination of knowledge for the competence to increase within the transport sector.
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4.
5.
  • Gender issues in learning and working with information technology: social constructs and cultural contexts
  • 2010
  • Samlingsverk (redaktörskap) (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • Gender Differences in Learning and Working with Technology: Social Constructs and Cultural Contexts discusses the social studies of information technology, specifically how IT skills are learned and how such skills are gendered. This book draws upon the disciplines of sociology, education, cultural and media studies, and gender studies, using a variety of research methods and theoretical perspectives to approach gender and IT in different contexts: education settings, work settings and everyday life. This unique reference source brings to light gender relations and IT, examining them in a multidimensional way. Gender, equity, learning, and information technology can intersect to form a theoretical and abstract field of knowledge emanating from very real, concrete, lived experiences.
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6.
  • Andersson, Johnn, 1983-, et al. (författare)
  • The critical role of informed political direction for advancing technology : The case of Swedish marine energy
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: Energy Policy. - Elsevier. - 1873-6777. ; 101, s. 52-64
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Marine energy technologies can contribute to meeting sustainability challenges, but they are still immature and dependent on public support. This paper employs the Technological Innovation Systems (TIS) framework to analyze the development and diffusion of Swedish marine energy up until 2014. While there were promising device developers, relevant industrial capabilities, and world-class research, the system suffered from weaknesses in several important innovation processes. Finally, the analysis identifies the lack of informed political direction as a critical blocking factor and highlights its connection to domestic market potential.
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7.
  • Boholm, Åsa, et al. (författare)
  • The practice of risk governance: lessons from the field
  • 2012
  • Ingår i: Journal of Risk Research. - 1366-9877. ; 15:1, s. 1-20
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • In contradistinction to generic and formal risk governance models such as the IRGC framework, this paper advocates the relevance of a contextual and practice-based approach to organizational risk governance. Three cases illustrate the socially situated dynamics of risk governance practice: public transportation management, river management, and railway planning. Risk governance is shown to derive from how actors, in their daily activities, mediate multi-level and regulatory institutional constraints, and solve actual problems through routines, trust, mutual understanding and not least, shared commitment to the societal role of infrastructure. Our findings underscore that risk governance takes place in contexts that are historically, spatially and institutionally situated. We therefore suggest that one needs to pay attention to the characteristics of this contextuality to understand the social dynamics of governance.
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8.
  • Göransson, Bo, et al. (författare)
  • Long waves and information technologies - on the transition towards the information society
  • 2005
  • Ingår i: Technovation. - Elsevier. - 1879-2383. ; 25:3, s. 203-211
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • In this paper we argue that Long Wave Theory provides a useful conceptual tool for understanding the transition from the industrial to the, post-industrial economy. While economic theories struggle to fully explain the structural changes involved in the shift towards the information economy, long wave theory offers a promising avenue for understanding the complex relationship between technology and economic development. However, a central aspect of long wave theory-the key factor-is still ambiguously dealt with in the theory and in need of further refinement. We argue that the role of the key factor in long wave theory goes beyond providing economic signals in a technological system as contended by some proponents of long wave theory. Only to a secondary, and diminishing, degree, will the key factor serve as an economic indicator in an economy progressing towards less dependence on raw material and more on application of knowledge-intensive and regenerative technologies. Considered in this way, the future pattern of long waves is more likely to be accentuated than to abate.
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9.
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10.
  • Hallonsten, Olof, et al. (författare)
  • From particle physics to photon science: Multi-dimensional and multi-level renewal at DESY and SLAC
  • 2013
  • Ingår i: Science and Public Policy. - 0302-3427 .- 1471-5430. ; 40:5, s. 591-603
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Studies of institutional transformation in science have largely overlooked Big Science installations, despite far-reaching changes to the roles and functions of such large labs in the past decades. Here, we present and analyze two Big Science labs that have undergone profound transformations from single-purpose particle physics labs to multi-purpose centers for so-called photon science: SLAC in the USA and DESY in Germany. We provide brief historic accounts of the labs and an analysis of the processes of change on different levels and from different aspects informed by a theoretical framework of institutional change in science. Thus, we describe the relevance of the study of Big Science labs from the perspective of institutional change and in terms of science policy/management. We also prove the aptness of the framework used and pave the way for a detailed analysis of particular forces of change and their interrelatedness.
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