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Sökning: hsv:(SAMHÄLLSVETENSKAP) hsv:(Annan samhällsvetenskap) hsv:(Tvärvetenskapliga studier) > Karolinska Institutet

  • Resultat 1-10 av 70
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  • Nilsson, AS, et al. (författare)
  • Transfer of Academic Research - Uncovering the Grey Zone
  • 2010
  • Ingår i: Journal of Technology Transfer. - Springer. - 0892-9912. ; 35:6, s. 617-636
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • In this study, we respond to calls for further investigation on why and how scientists choose to commercialize their research. Mowery (University entrepreneurship and technology transfer: process design, and intellectual property, Elsevier, Oxford 2005), in his criticism of the US-system, emphasizes the need for multiple channels between university and industry. His argument makes the case of Sweden interesting, where the researchers own the intellectual property of their research. Sweden thus constitutes a unique case where data can be found on which choices researchers make in a setting where a variety of channels for transfer are available. Our empirical data, collected through case studies, allowed for the expansion of the typology for mechanisms for transfer of academic research as well as the development of a typology for determinants for researchers' choice to engage in transfer of research. Apart from those contributions to the theoretic discussion, the data also provided policy implications.
  • Olsson, TM, et al. (författare)
  • Research that Guides Practice: Outcome Research in Swedish PhD Theses Across Seven Disciplines 1997-2012.
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: Prevention Science. - Springer. - 1573-6695.
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The core of evidence-based practice (EBP) as advocated for within the practice arms of the health and social sciences is to promote the routine incorporation of the best available research evidence into practice efforts. This requires discipline-specific education that is not only grounded in professional practice but also prepares would-be scientists in the application of the sophisticated techniques that characterize today's high research standards. Doctoral-level education is an important primer for future scientific endeavors across disciplines. This study examined 2334 theses published across Sweden in public health, criminology, nursing, psychiatry, psychology, social work, and sociology during the period 1997-2012. Of the theses reviewed, 13 % aimed to investigate the effects of interventions. The highest percentage of effectiveness studies was found in nursing, public health, and psychology. The percentage of outcome research increased during the period. Controlled studies (with comparison group and pre- and post-test) occurred primarily within public health, nursing, psychiatry, and psychology. Of the 296 theses that included an intervention effectiveness study, 131 (44 %), or 5.6 % of all theses reviewed, met all four assessment criteria for quality. PhD education across seven disciplines in Sweden may be producing a professional core of scientists that is ill prepared to produce the type of research that is necessary to inform practice of the effects of its interventions as exposure to the rigors of quality effectiveness research is all but non-existent. This has implications for the advancement of an evidence-based practice and intervention science more broadly.
  • Akerstedt, T, et al. (författare)
  • A 6-hour working day : effects on well-being
  • 2001
  • Ingår i: Journal of Human Ergology. - Tokyo : Human Ergology Research Association. - 0300-8134. ; 30:1/2, s. 197-202
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The effect of the total amount of work hours and the benefits of a shortening is frequently debated, but very little data is available. The present study compared a group (N=41) that obtained a 9h reduction of the working week (to a 6h day) with a comparison group (N=22) that retained normal work hours. Both groups were constituted of mainly female health care and day care nursery personnel. The experimental group retained full pay and extra personnel were employed to compensate for loss of hours. Questionnaire data were obtained before and 1 year after the change. The data were analyzed using two-factor ANOVA with the interaction of year*group for social factors, sleep quality, mental fatigue, and heart/respiratory complaints, and attitude to work hours. In all cases the experimental group improved whereas the control group did not change. It was concluded that shortened work hours have clear social effects and moderate effects on well-being.
  • Andersen, Lise Geisler, et al. (författare)
  • Birth Weight in Relation to Leisure Time Physical Activity in Adolescence and Adulthood: Meta-Analysis of Results from 13 Nordic Cohorts
  • 2009
  • Ingår i: PLOS ONE. - 1932-6203. ; 4:12
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BACKGROUND: Prenatal life exposures, potentially manifested as altered birth size, may influence the later risk of major chronic diseases through direct biologic effects on disease processes, but also by modifying adult behaviors such as physical activity that may influence later disease risk. METHODS/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We investigated the association between birth weight and leisure time physical activity (LTPA) in 43,482 adolescents and adults from 13 Nordic cohorts. Random effects meta-analyses were performed on categorical estimates from cohort-, age-, sex- and birth weight specific analyses. Birth weight showed a reverse U-shaped association with later LTPA; within the range of normal weight the association was negligible but weights below and above this range were associated with a lower probability of undertaking LTPA. Compared with the reference category (3.26-3.75 kg), the birth weight categories of 1.26-1.75, 1.76-2.25, 2.26-2.75, and 4.76-5.25 kg, had odds ratios of 0.67 (95% confidence interval: 0.47, 0.94), 0.72 (0.59, 0.88), 0.89 (0.79, 0.99), and 0.65 (0.50, 0.86), respectively. The shape and strength of the birth weight-LTPA association was virtually independent of sex, age, gestational age, educational level, concurrent body mass index, and smoking. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The association between birth weight and undertaking LTPA is very weak within the normal birth weight range, but both low and high birth weights are associated with a lower probability of undertaking LTPA, which hence may be a mediator between prenatal influences and later disease risk.
  • Andersson, Ann-Christine, et al. (författare)
  • Five Types of Practice-Based ImprovementIdeas in Health Care Services: : An EmpiricallyDefined Typology
  • 2011
  • Ingår i: Quality Management in Health Care. - 1063-8628. ; 20:2, s. 122-130
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The aim of this study is to empirically identify and present different kinds of practice-based improvement ideas developed in health care services. The focus is on individual placement needs, problems/issues, and the ability to organize work on the development, implementation, and institutionalization of ideas for the health care sector. This study is based on a Swedish county council improvement program. Health care departments and primary health care centers in the Kalmar County Council were invited to apply for money to accomplish improvement projects. A qualitative content analysis was done of 183 proposed applications from various health care departments and primary health care centers. The following 5 types of improvement projects were identified: organizational process, evidence and quality, competence development, process technology, and proactive patient work. This illustrates the range of strategies that encourage letting individual units define their own improvement needs. These projects point to the various problems and experiences health care professionals encounter in their day-to-day work. To generalize beyond this improvement program and to validate the typology, we applied it to all articles found when searching for quality improvement projects in the journal Quality Management in Health Care during the last 2 years and found that all of them could be fitted into at least 1 of those 5 categories. This article provides valuable insights into the current state of improvemen  work in Swedish health care, and will serve as a foundation for further investigations in this quality improvement program.
  • Andersson, AG, et al. (författare)
  • Fear of falling in stroke patients : relationship with previous falls and functional characteristics
  • 2008
  • Ingår i: International Journal of Rehabilitation Research. - 0342-5282. ; 31:3, s. 261-264
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The objectives of this study were to determine the relationship between fear of falling and functional characteristics of patients after stroke as well as to determine what characterizes fallers who score high fall-related self-efficacy, and nonfallers who score low fall-related self-efficacy. Patients (n=140) treated in a stroke unit during a 12-month period were included. On follow-up, fallers were identified and patients answered the questions in the Falls Efficacy Scale, Swedish version (FES-S). Assessments of motor capacity, functional mobility and balance were also made. In univariate analysis, low fall-related self-efficacy was significantly associated with increased age, female sex, earlier falls, visual and cognitive impairment, low mood and impaired physical function. In multivariate analysis, only earlier falls and physical function remained significant. Twenty percent of the patients scored low fall-related self-efficacy without having experienced a fall, and 11% who experienced a fall scored high fall-related self-efficacy. Impaired physical function was significantly associated with scoring low fall-related self-efficacy, for both fallers and nonfallers. Fear of falling is significantly associated with poor physical function and earlier falls. Falls Efficacy Scale, Swedish version could add useful information to a fall risk analysis. Patients scoring low fall-related self-efficacy should be offered fall prevention measures whether they have fallen or not.
  • Andersson, Camilla, et al. (författare)
  • A longitudinal assessment of inter-sectoral participation in a community-based diabetes prevention programme
  • 2005
  • Ingår i: Social Sciences & Medicine. - 0277-9536. ; 61:11, s. 2407-2422
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • To understand the development of inter-sectoral participation in the three intervention municipalities of Stockholm Diabetes Prevention Programme (SDPP) case studies with a longitudinal assessment were conducted using the spidergram method, document analysis and group discussions. At three time points, the members of the local steering committees assessed the extent of participation from narrow to wide inter-sectoral participation in five key areas: planning, resources, leadership, network and implementation. Wide participation of various interest groups was recognised in planning and implementing activities whereas local resources, the representation of the leadership and the extent of the network were perceived as more restricted. Expert involvement varied during the programme period but was not regarded as exerting control over the local programmes. Participation within the local steering committees decreased, with a stronger focus on the project co-ordinator and other local partners in latter years. The extent of partner engagement increased due to focusing on activities approaching multi-sector collaboration and institutionalisation. Overall, communication and shared responsibility appeared critical in influencing both the development and perception of participation. In conclusion, to understand the dynamic process of participation at different times, areas and levels, the development and use of evaluation designs combining different methods and information sources throughout the lifespan of a project are recommended. 
  • Anmyr, Lena, et al. (författare)
  • Children with hearing impairment : living with cochlear implants or with hearing aids
  • 2011
  • Ingår i: International Journal of Pediatric Otorhinolaryngology. - Amsterdam : Elsevier. - 0165-5876 .- 1872-8464. ; 75:6, s. 844-849
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Objective The aim of this study was to enhance knowledge about the life circumstances of children with cochlear implants or hearing aids, regarding daily functioning and attitude to the impairment. Methods Data were obtained from 36 children with cochlear implants and 38 children with hearing aids via study-specific questionnaires with fixed answer alternatives. The questions covered (1) usage of aids and related factors, (2) hearing in different everyday situations, (3) thoughts about the children's own hearing and others’ attitudes to it, and (4) choice of language. The data were analyzed using SPSS, and presented via the theoretical frame of the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health, Child and Youth version (ICF-CY). Results Children with CI and HA functioned equally well in daily life, but there were also certain differences. Symptoms from neck and shoulders were more common among children with hearing aids than among children with cochlear implants (p < .001). Children with hearing aids used their aids significantly less often than those with cochlear implants (p < .001). The participation variables showed that children with hearing aids had significantly more hearing problems in team sports (p = .033) and outdoor activities (p = .019), in comparison to children with cochlear implants. The two groups had similar thoughts regarding their own hearing, mostly considering it not to be a problem. They also did not generally think that other people found their hearing to be a problem. Conclusions Children with cochlear implants and children with hearing aids have, in some aspects, equally good functioning in everyday life situations. However, certain differences were found in dimensions of functioning, regarding neck and shoulder pain, usage of aids and sign language, and hearing problems in some activities.
  • Berglund, Birgitta, et al. (författare)
  • A bisensory method for odor and irritation detection of formaldehyde and pyridine
  • 2012
  • Ingår i: CHEMOSENS PERCEPT. - 1936-5802. ; 5:2, s. 146-157
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • A bisensory method was developed for determining the psychometric functions and absolute thresholds for odor and sensory irritation of two odorous irritants. Individual and group thresholds for formaldehyde or pyridine were measured for 31 age-matched subjects (18-35 years old). P (50) absolute thresholds were for formaldehyde odor 110 ppb (range 23-505), for pyridine odor 77 ppb (range 20-613), and for pyridine irritation 620 ppb (range 90-3,656); too few subjects' formaldehyde irritation thresholds were possible to determine (human exposures limited to 1 ppm). In spite of large interindividual differences, all thresholds for irritation were higher than for odor. The average slopes of the 62 psychometric functions for odor and the 32 possible for sensory irritation were highest for formaldehyde odor (83% per log ppb) and equal for pyridine odor and irritation (68% per log ppb). The bisensory method for measuring odor and sensory irritation jointly produced detection functions and absolute thresholds compatible with those earlier published; however, a steeper slope for sensory irritation than odor was expected for pyridine. The bisensory method is intended for measuring odor and sensory irritation to broadband mixtures and dynamic exposures, like indoor air.
  • Bergstrom, J, et al. (författare)
  • The Social Process of Escalation: A Promising Focus for Crisis Management Research
  • 2012
  • Ingår i: BMC Health Services Research. - BioMed Central. - 1472-6963. ; 12:161
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background This study identifies a promising, new focus for the crisis management research in the health care domain. After reviewing the literature on health care crisis management, there seems to be a knowledge-gap regarding organisational change and adaption, especially when health care situations goes from normal, to non-normal, to pathological and further into a state of emergency or crisis. Discussion Based on studies of escalating situations in obstetric care it is suggested that two theoretical perspectives (contingency theory and the idea of failure as a result of incomplete interaction) tend to simplify the issue of escalation rather than attend to its complexities (including the various power relations among the stakeholders involved). However studying the process of escalation as inherently complex and social allows us to see the definition of a situation as normal or non-normal as an exercise of power in itself, rather than representing a putatively correct response to a particular emergency. Implications The concept of escalation, when treated this way, can help us further the analysis of clinical and institutional acts and competence. It can also turn our attention to some important elements in a class of social phenomenon, crises and emergencies, that so far have not received the attention they deserve. Focusing on organisational choreography, that interplay of potential factors such as power, professional identity, organisational accountability, and experience, is not only a promising focus for future naturalistic research but also for developing more pragmatic strategies that can enhance organisational coordination and response in complex events.
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