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Sökning: hsv:(SAMHÄLLSVETENSKAP) hsv:(Annan samhällsvetenskap) hsv:(Tvärvetenskapliga studier) > Försvarshögskolan

  • Resultat 1-10 av 61
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1.
  • Katastrofriskreducering: Perspektiv, praktik, potential
  • 2016
  • Samlingsverk (redaktörskap) (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • Varför bosätter sig människor på riskfyllda platser? Hur beter sig människor i en katastrof och vilken betydelse har religion, hushåll och försörjning för återhämtning? Lär vi oss av våra kriserfarenheter och vilken roll spelar motivation och kollektiva minnen för detta? Är kapacitetsutveckling, multisektoriell samverkan och övning en hållbar väg mot reducerad katastrofrisk? Dessa är några av de många frågor som denna bok besvarar. Katastrofriskreducering är ett växande område, såväl politiskt som inom forskning och utbildning. Det handlar om att förstå de samhällsprocesser som skapar risk för katastrofer och som påverkar villkoren för organisationer och individer att hantera dem. Denna kunskap kan bidra till att minska exponering och sårbarhet för människor, egendom och miljö och utveckla samhällens, organisa­tioners och enskildas förmåga att reducera risker och hantera katastrofers konsekvenser, vad som på senare tid kallas resiliens. Katastrofriskreducering innehåller både teoretiska kapitel och empiriska fallstudier baserade på aktuell forskning om katastrofrisk­reducering.Boken ger läsaren en god översikt av detta mång­vetenskapliga kunskapsområde, genom att beskriva och problematisera centrala begrepp och perspektiv. Det här är en bok som vänder sig till såväl studenter och forskare som praktiskt verksamma beslutsfattare inom krisberedskap, humanitära insatser och riskhantering på myndigheter, i kommunal verksamhet och i icke-statliga organisationer.
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2.
  • Liwång, Hans, et al. (författare)
  • An examination of the implementation of risk based approaches in military operations
  • 2014
  • Ingår i: Journal of Military Studies. - Helsinki : National Defense University, Finland and Finnish Society of Military Sciences. - 1799-3350. ; 5:2, s. 1-27
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Today several nations utilise risk based approaches in military planning. However, the discussion on limitations with the approaches in regard to aspects such as uncertainties, the nature of the threat and risk to civilians is limited.The aim of this work is to identify important challenges when applying risk based approaches to military activity. This article discusses risk based approaches in general and their military applications. Five generic quality requirements on risk analysis are presented from research in risk philosophy. Two military application areas for risk analysis: military intelligence, and risk management in legal assessments are analysed in relation to the presented quality requirements on risk analysis.From the analysis it is clear that risk analysis is an integral part of the decision-making analysis and cannot be separated in time, space or organisationally from the decision-making process in general. Defining the scenario to analyse, including the time span, is a central task in risk analysis and will affect every aspect of the risk estimation. Therefore, the principles for scenario definition must be communicated and continuously updated throughout the organisation. Handling the uncertainties throughout the process is also important, especially if the aim is a resilient military system.
3.
  • Liwång, Hans, 1974- (författare)
  • Risk-based ship security analysis – an approach based on civilian and military methods
  • 2012
  • Licentiatavhandling (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • The demands on maritime operations today are increasingly higher in terms of control, efficiency and cost. The margins for accidents and security incidents are therefore decreasing. In the area of ship safety the regulations, guidelines and methods have a history and culture of systematic research, development and implementation. In contrast, international security is highly politicized and therefore not as transparent. The result is that a tradition of ship security is not as well established.The overall aim of this thesis is to propose a method for ship security analysis that increases the overall safety of the crew and the ship. The objective is to develop a method that is systematic in order to ensure that assessment and response are complete and effective, and that the process is documented to provide evidence of decision-making.The method used is probabilistic risk assessment where quantitative analysis is central. The proposed approach is consistent with the requirements of maritime safety work. However, in the work here, the proposed methods are specifically tested for security cases. This is because hazards (without intent) and threats (with intent) evolve in different ways into risk. Therefore, they must be analysed differently in order to capture the causal relationship.The proposed approach consists of three steps: the first step consists of a threat description that documents qualitative and quantitative aspects that together describe how the threat most likely will act in relation to the ship’s vulnerability; the second step uses the threat description to define the system studied as well as the scenarios that collectively describe the harmful consequences; the third step evaluates the risk with tools from probabilistic risk assessment.The overall conclusion is that the proposed method brings the procedure and results of ship security analysis into the open and therefore allows for criticism, improvements and shared risk knowledge, not possible with less structured methods. The results also show that the calculated probabilities agree with available statistics, which indicates that the analysis succeeds in describing the central causal relationships of the scenarios modelled.
4.
  • Weissmann, Mikael, 1977-, et al. (författare)
  • Endast genom anfall kan ett avgörande nås Varför dominerar offensiven militärt taktiskt tänkande?
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: Kungl Krigsvetenskapsakademiens Handlingar och Tidskrift. - 0023-5369. ; :2, s. 8-16
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • This article analyses why the offensive dominates tactical thinking among Swedish officers. Having found that the large majority of Swedish officers think that the offensive dominates tactical thinking in the armed forces (6:1, 16:1 in the case of the army) ten possible reasons are identified and analysed. It found that the key factors for the dominance are military culture and education which together produce and reproduce the offensive bias. These are the factors with the most direct and deepest impact on the officer identity and understanding, form the foundation for tactical thinking, and work as a prism for other important factors.
5.
  • Bachmann, Sascha-Dominik, et al. (författare)
  • Terrorism and cyber attacks as hybrid threats defining a comprehensive approach for countering 21st century threats to global peace and security
  • 2014
  • Ingår i: Journal on terrorism and security analysis. - Syracuse : Syracuse University. ; 9:1, s. 26-36
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Multimodal, low intensity, kinetic as well as non-kinetic threats to international peace and security including cyber war, low intensity asymmetric conflict scenarios, global terrorism, piracy, transnational organized crime, demographic challenges, resources security, retrenchment from globalization and the proliferation of weapons of mass destruction were identified by NATO as so called "Hybrid Threats" (cf BI-SC Input for a New NATO Capstone Concept for The Military Contribution to Countering Hybrid Enclosure 1 to 1500/CPPCAM/FCR/10-270038 and 5000 FXX/0100/TT-0651/SER: NU0040, dated 25 August 2010). This submission aims to introduce the audience to this form of security threat with a particular focus on "cyber" terrorism and war. This new form of conflict in the fifth dimension has a truly hybrid risk potential and warrants a new holistic counter approach: from law enforcement, counter cyber strategies to kinetic responses. The authors will present the findings of an ongoing Hybrid Threat experiment, which is being undertaken at the Swedish Defence College, with a focus on the role of cyber attacks within the wider context of asymmetric conflict and how the existing legal framework governing the use of force and the law applicable to hostilities does not necessarily reflect on this new form of threat.
6.
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7.
  • Baroutsi, Nicoletta, et al. (författare)
  • Assessing development of team training
  • 2014
  • Ingår i: ISCRAM 2014 Conference Proceedings. Book of Papers. - The Pennsylvania State University, USA. - 978-0-692-21194-6
  • Konferensbidrag (refereegranskat)
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8.
  • Berggren, Peter, et al. (författare)
  • Assessing team focused behaviors in emergency response teams using the shared priorities measure
  • 2014
  • Ingår i: Proceedings of the 11th International ISCRAM Conference. - Pennsylvania, USA : ISCRAM. ; s. 130-134
  • Konferensbidrag (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The purpose of this work in progress paper is to report on the method development of the Shared Prioritiesmeasure to include content analysis, as a way of gaining a deeper understanding of team work incrisis/emergency response. An experiment is reported where the performance of six trained teams is comparedwith the performance of six non-trained teams. The experiment was performed using an emergency responsemicroworld simulation with a forest fire scenario. Dependent measures were simulation performance, the CrewAwareness Rating Scale (CARS), and content analysis. Trained teams performed better and scored higher onmeasures of team behaviors.
9.
  • Berggren, Peter, et al. (författare)
  • Statistical modelling of team training in a microworld study
  • 2014
  • Ingår i: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting. - Sage Publications. ; s. 894-898
  • Konferensbidrag (refereegranskat)abstract
    • A command and control environment is a dynamic and complex setting with complicated technical systems where teams of operators interact to reach shared goals. This study presents an experiment in which we, by means of Structural Equation Modeling (SEM), explain the relations between basic concepts of command and control environments: mental workload, frustration, situational awareness, and performance. This paper reports a LISREL analysis of the Baroutsi, Berggren, Nählinder, & Johansson (2013) data. From that data, a new latent variable “Frustration” emerges, which now can be included in the model.
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10.
  • Berggren, Peter, et al. (författare)
  • The shared priorities measure as a way of assessing team strategic awareness : a bridge between self-assessment and the deep blue sea of field recordings
  • 2014
  • Ingår i: Proceedings of the 2014 European Conference on Cognitive Ergonomics. - ACM Digital Library. - 978-1-4503-2874-6 ; s. 13
  • Konferensbidrag (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Objective, easy to use, easy to comprehend, high face-validity assessment methods for measuring shared awareness in teams are hard to find. This paper describes an experiment where a new measure called Shared Priorities, which is based on ranking of self-generated strategic items, is tested. Trained teams were compared to non-trained teams in a dynamic problem-solving task in terms of performance and shared awareness. The shared priorities measure was used alongside other, well-documented measures of team awareness based on self-rating. The results show that the Shared Priorities measure correlate with performance and could also distinguish between trained and non-trained teams. However, the Shared Priorities measure did not correlate with the other team measures, suggesting that it captures a different quality of team work than the self-rating measures. Further, the shared priorities measure was found to be easily administered and gained a high user acceptance.
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