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Sökning: hsv:(SAMHÄLLSVETENSKAP) hsv:(Annan samhällsvetenskap) hsv:(Tvärvetenskapliga studier) > Lantbruksvetenskap

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  • Otto, Opira (författare)
  • Trust, identity and beer
  • 2013
  • Doktorsavhandling (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • This thesis explores the role and influence of institutions on agricultural labour transactions in Isunga village in Kiryandongo District, Midwestern Uganda. It primarily focuses on how farmers structure, maintain and enforce their labour relationships during crop farming. The study is based on semi-structured interviews of twenty households and unstructured interviews with representatives of farmers associations. These interviews show that other than household labour, the other common labour arrangements in the village include farm work sharing, labour exchanges and casual wage labour. Farm work sharing and labour exchanges involve farmers temporarily pooling their labour into work groups to complete tasks such as planting, weeding or harvesting crops on members' farms in succession. This is done under strict rules and rewarded with 'good' beer and food. Against this background, the study asks what institutions really are, why they matter and what we can learn about them. Literature suggests that institutions influence labour transactions by their effects on transaction costs and the protection of contractual rights. However, literature does not suggest which institutions are best for agricultural labour transactions. Taking institutions to be the 'rules of the game', with farmers as 'players' who strategically use these rules to their advantage, the study focused on the interaction between institutions and farmers. The major findings of the study are: (a) farmers' choices of institutions are influenced by the characteristics of transactions, the costs of using institutions for handling labour dealings, the fairness and predictability of the outcome of contract enforcement mechanisms, and socio-cultural factors such as kin/ethnic status, morality and affection, (b) formal institutions in Isunga are either weak, ineffective or absent. So, farmers rely heavily on institutions embedded in social norms and networks to structure their transactional relationships, to ensure the performance of the respective parties, and to settle disputes if they arise. The study concludes that agricultural labour transactions in Isunga involve judgements of personal characteristics and social roles expressed as reputation and trustworthiness.
  • Østensvik, Tove, et al. (författare)
  • Work exposure and complaints in a sample of French and Norwegian forest machine operators – A comparative field study within the ErgoWood programme.
  • 2005
  • Rapport (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • The aim of the present work is to evaluate muscle activity pattern, psychosocial working conditions and self-reported complaints of fatigue and pain in the neck, shoulders and forearms in two samples of forest machine operators driving harvesters in France and Norway. The EMG readings from four muscle groups were analysed in predetermined periods of sustained low level muscle activity (SULMA), ranging from 1.2-5 seconds up to > 20 minutes. The main result was the similarity between operators of the two different countries. Tendencies were found for higher static muscle activity and less muscular relaxation in all evaluated muscles in the French operators, but significant only for the right trapezius muscle. However, the level of muscular complaints was significantly higher among the Norwegian operators. The amount of both short and long SULMA was not significantly higher in the Norwegian group for the right side. This indicates that the amount of low-level muscle activity could be of higher importance than the gaps, or that the gaps are too short to have effect in reducing risk for discomfort or pain. The results indicate that the introduction of the SULMA concept may be of importance as a method for MSD risk assessment. Future work should concentrate on exploring the best linkage between SULMA and muscular complaints
  • Unraveling the logics of landscape
  • 2014
  • Samlingsverk (redaktörskap) (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • Despite conceptual oscillations through times, the concept of landscape remains highly subjective, whereupon unraveling its 'logics' opens up to a plurality of interpretations. Accordingly, by focusing on the interconnections present in the non-haphazard production of landscape, this publication elaborates on how the rural landscape is valued, monitored, changed, harbored, used and misused, be it through actions, representations or metaphors. This book covers a broad range of topics, with contributions from scholars from more than 30 countries.
  • Öhman, May-Britt, 1966- (författare)
  • Building a Sami Academy of Sciences : Science, Research, and Education for Decolonization
  • 2015
  • Ingår i: Indigenous Knowledge Sovereignties and Scientific Research.
  • Konferensbidrag (refereegranskat)abstract
    • May-Britt Öhman, Uppsala University (may-britt.ohman@gender.uu.se) Building a Sami Academy of Sciences: Science, Research, and Education for Decolonization  The production of technological modern identities within Scandinavia rests on the dispossession of Sámi people from our traditional lands, and thus our identities related to land and water. Technoscientific language and imagery continue to shape and reflect power relations which favor the modern nation states and dis-favor Sámi rights. Meanwhile there is currently a void of Sámi research platforms available, especially within Sweden. The vast majority of scholars doing research on Sámi territory and Sámi people are themselves non-Sámi. The current situation is highly problematic. It contributes to the creation of epistemological contexts which support increasing colonial exploitation and destruction of Sámi traditional territories. This paper describes an ongoing project to establish important structures and platforms to accommodate research initiated and led by Sámi in order to promote decolonization of technoscience for the benefit of the Sámi and Sámi society. The project includes a Sámi academy of sciences and a Sámi university. The presentation discusses collaborations with Sámi organisations, the Sámi parliament, individual reindeer herders, Sámi artists and film makers and other Sámi scholars. Important points of departure are to enable Sami peoples' continuance, healing and regeneration and to apply Sami knowledges and experiences as a basis for them to develop ecological innovations and technologies to facilitate the everyday life of reindeer herding.  
  • Staddon, Sam C., et al. (författare)
  • The social nature of participatory environmental monitoring
  • 2014
  • Ingår i: Society & Natural Resources. - 0894-1920. ; 27:9, s. 899-914
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Participatory ecological monitoring brings together conservationists and members of the public to collect data about changes in nature. This article scrutinizes the "social nature'' of such monitoring, considering not only its impacts for nature, but also society, and importantly the ways in which these interact. Drawing on the field of nature-society studies we present a framework with which to explore case studies from the community forests of Nepal. We document the importance of multiple knowledges of nature, including what is referred to as "local monitoring'' and its relation to the scientific procedures promoted in participatory monitoring; the consequences of participatory monitoring as a situated and embodied practice, such that it may (re) produce social inequalities; and the place of monitoring within the wider socioecological regime, with regard to possible unintended consequences for both nature and society. This article thus expands our understanding of the complexities of this increasingly popular approach to conservation.
  • Almered Olsson, Gunilla, 1951-, et al. (författare)
  • Agribusiness and Green power - the benefits for whom? A case study from Tanzania.
  • 2009
  • Ingår i: World Congress on Environmental History, Abstract volume. Copenhagen, Denmark, 4-8 August 2009..
  • Konferensbidrag (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Agribusiness and Green power - the benefits for whom? A case study from Tanzania Wilhelm Östberg1 and Gunilla A. Olsson2 1 Department of Human Geography, Stockholm University, SE -106 91 Stockholm, Sweden 2 School of Global Studies, P.O. Box 700, Göteborg University, SE-405 30 Göteborg, Sweden The current excited interest in alternatives to fossil fuel is based on the growing insights of the rapid decrease of the global stores of fossil resources for energy production. This has led to a global race for discovering and developing new energy sources – with the dual goal of using renewable resources and to decrease CO2 emissions. Large-scale plantations of rapid growing crops suitable for processing to ethanol or bio-diesel are established especially in tropical and sub-tropical environments. Land, arable and non-arable, has become an expensive commodity linked to high expectations on conveying wealth and large economic benefits to the involved groups. Investors from all parts of the world are searching for suitable areas that can be transformed to bio-energy plantations. This happens in Tanzania where large-scale plantations of sugar cane for ethanol production for the European market, is under way put in order by a foreign company and with encouragement from the Tanzanian government. The land was sold very cheap by the government with the expectation that this enterprise would contribute to positive economic development for the country. It is stated that the new land use would be very profitable since this dryland is unproductive and deserted by humans. This paper presents a study on the implications for local communities and their possibilities to sustainable development when being involved in the globalised market of the production of biofuel. The current and historical land use in this region based on documents and interviews of local communities is surveyed with specific focus on the resource use in local agro-ecosystems. The influence of the new enterprise with its related activities on the livelihoods and resource needs of local peoples are studied. The production of green biofuels is related to the questions of sustainable development for different societies and at different time and spatial scales.
  • Almered Olsson, Gunilla, 1951- (författare)
  • Biofuels in East Africa
  • 2009
  • Ingår i: Biofuel International Workshop, Summary of presentations. NTNU, Trondheim, 2-5 February, 2009. Department of Chemical Engineering, NTNU..
  • Konferensbidrag (övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • Bengtsson, A, et al. (författare)
  • Outdoor environments at three nursing homes – Focus group interviews with staff.
  • 2006
  • Ingår i: Journal of Housing for the Elderly. - Haworth Press. - 0276-3893. ; 19:3-4, s. 49-69
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • This study investigated how the outdoor environments at nursing homes for older persons were experienced and used to gain knowledge with implications for design. Focus group methodology was used to explore staff's view of how the residents experienced and used the outdoors. Two main themes and ten sub-themes were the result when the focus group interviews were analyzed. Theme one, being comfortable in the outdoor environment, describe the residents' special needs to be able to and dare to use the outdoors. The theme suggests a precautionary design, which promotes security and safety and protects from disturbance and negative impressions. The second main theme, access to surrounding life, describes the residents' needs for change and variety in Elderly, older, outdoor environment, health design, universal design, landscape planning
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