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  • Resultat 1-10 av 546
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1.
  • Ahlborg, Helene, 1980-, et al. (författare)
  • Ecology and sociotechnical systems research – motivations for theoretical and methodological integration across fields
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: International Sustainability Transitions conference 2017.
  • Konferensbidrag (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • Currently, we are witnessing a number of global trends that do not promise well for the future. Accelerating climate change, loss of biodiversity, chemical pollution, disappearance of natural forest and degradation of fishing grounds and agricultural lands are just a few of the serious environmental problems that threaten the functional and structural integrity of ecosystems, to an extent that also human societies risk collapse. The scale of human impact is now such that scholars suggest that we live in the Anthropocene. The trends are driven by several linked factors, which are not easily disentangled into manageable specific problems to be solved by specific policies. More than ever, interdisciplinary and transdisciplinary collaborations are needed in order to address these urgent challenges. The objective of this paper is to argue for the importance of research on socio-technical-ecological systems (STES) rather than social-ecological (SES) and sociotechnical systems (STS) separately. Hence, we address researchers in both the social-ecological and sociotechnical fields. We organize the argument around six reasons why “technology” should be integrated into SES studies. We call these reasons: (1) the interface and mediation aspect, (2) ambivalence, (3) the agency aspect, (4) the question of scale, (5) the question of governance and politics, and (6) the question of epistemology and framing. We also highlight potential conceptual conflicts and mistranslations. Our discussion is primarily a theoretical argument, exemplified with empirical examples. Among the conceptual challenges, we note that SES scholars, if they consider technology in their analyses, generally treat it as an exogenous factor or as a passive background element. Similarly, STS scholars tend to neglect ecological dynamics and refer to the ecological domain mainly in terms of inputs and outputs, e.g. natural resources, environmental and health problems caused by human activities. In light of the discussion, we conclude that the importance of collaborating across the two fields goes beyond each field adding pieces together. We argue that integration and translation across these domains will lead to qualitative change in the theoretical and methodological approaches of both fields; and that technology, society and ecology should be given symmetric analytical attention.
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2.
  • Öhman, May-Britt, 1966-, et al. (författare)
  • Public participation, Human Security and Public Safety around Dams in Sweden A case study of the regulated Ume and Lule Rivers
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: Safety Science Monitor. - Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm. - 1443-8844. ; 19:2
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • This paper presents findings from an empirical study of the current situation with geographical focus on two rivers in the north of Sweden, encompassing parts of the indigenous territory Sápmi. The major focus in Sweden with regards to “dam safety” is on the prevention of dam failure, and emergency preparedness. The issue of “public safety around dams” is left aside to the detriment of “human security”. While a major dam failure may cause the death of hundreds up to thousands of people, the current rate of human deaths caused by dam failure in the last 40 years is one person. The number of fatalities that may be referred to as having been caused by a lack of “public safety around dams” on the Lule River only amounts to 1-2 individuals per year. The risks and dangers involved also cause stress, anxiety, and difficulties on an everyday basis for residents along the regulated rivers and water courses. From a study of literature, available statistics, interviews and newspaper reports we discuss the accidents and incidents over the last decade (2002-12), how these may be defined as “public safety around dams”, the void of work to prevent such accidents and how the surrounding societal contexts play in, such as the lack of availability to fast and efficient emergency rescue services to be able to save lives in the event of a major disaster.Finally, we discuss the current void of public participation and make recommendations to enhance public participation and thereby possibilities to an enhanced public safety around dams in Sweden.
3.
4.
  • Bergek, Anna, et al. (författare)
  • Analyzing the functional dynamics of technological innovation systems: A scheme of analysis
  • 2008
  • Ingår i: Research Policy. - 0048-7333. ; 37:3, s. 407-429
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Various researchers and policy analysts have made empirical studies of innovation systems in order to understand their current structure and trace their dynamics. However, policy makers often experience difficulties in extracting practical guidelines from studies of this kind. In this paper, we operationalize our previous work on a functional approach to analyzing innovation system dynamics into a practical scheme of analysis for policy makers. The scheme is based on previous literature and our own experience in developing and applying functional thinking. It can be used by policy makers not only to identify the key policy issues but also to set policy goals. © 2007 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
5.
  • Berlin, Cecilia, 1981-, et al. (författare)
  • Change Agent Infrastructure (CHAI) – a Stakeholder Analysis Tool for Ergonomics- and Work Environment- Related Change Projects
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: Proceedings of the 7th International Conference on Applied Human Factors and Ergonomics AHFE 2016, Walt Disney, Florida, USA 27-31 July 2016, Edited by T. Ahram, W. Karwowski, Springer Series on Advances in Intelligent Systems and Computing.. - 2194-5357. - 978-3-319-42069-1
  • Konferensbidrag (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • This paper is a short communication introducing a novel method for stakeholder analysis, Change Agent Infrastructure (CHAI). The method is specifically developed in the context of ergonomics/work environment-related change projects and is meant for early stages of change projects. It maps potential stakeholders against eight distinct “roles” that have been found in previous research to facilitate or hinder workplace change. Mapping the “decision dilemmas” that stakeholders may face, as well as identifying over- or underrepresented roles, may benefit the change project in terms of determining information needs and how the project team should be staffed. The method has been iteratively developed and tested in educational and research projects. The method is visual, participative and helps to clarify the various participants’ understanding of the change at hand and what it means for them – this contributes positively to information strategies and decisions that facilitates the planning and execution of a sustainable change.
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6.
  • Fors, Per, 1988- (författare)
  • The practice of implementing sustainable ICT practices : The case of the Green IT Audit
  • 2015
  • Ingår i: Proceedings of the 23rd NORDIC ACADEMY OF MANAGEMENT conference. - Copenhagen.
  • Konferensbidrag (refereegranskat)abstract
    • For several decades, Information and Communication Technologies (ICTs) have been used by individuals and within organizations in order to increase efficiency. Traditionally, the increased efficiency enabled by ICTs has primarily affected factors such as profitability and time. In recent years, however, ICT has been promoted as an important tool for increasing ecological efficiency, i.e. for sustainability. Although there are several environmental implications related to the ICT sector to take into account, such as the production of electronic waste (e-waste), the extraction of rare earth elements (REEs) and the hazardous production of ICT equipment, the discourse has increasingly shifted towards discussing the positive sides of ICT for sustainability (Author et al., 2014). According to recent reports, the potential of using ICT in order to increase the ecological sustainability of our society is huge. According to GeSI, the Global e-Sustainability Initiative, we will be able to decrease the annual GHG emissions by 9,1 GtCO2e worldwide, as well as creating 29,5 million jobs by using smart solutions enabled by ICT (GeSI, 2008). Some examples of these solutions are digitalization and dematerialization, system integration and process optimization (ibid.) However, as the full potential of smart ICT solutions hinges on that it is implemented and used correctly, we have yet to see the benefits of ICT for ecological sustainability surpass its negative effects (Rattle, 2010).By following one initiative for implementing smart ICT solutions in organizations in Sweden, namely the Green IT Audit, we have investigated how the implementation of these sustainable ICT practices takes place in practice (Author, 2013). The Green IT Audit is a consultancy model, developed by TCO Development, which is used to improve the usage of and implement sustainable ICT solutions in organizations. By drawing on practice theory (Schatzki, 1996), this paper explores new ways of explaining how the implementation of sustainable ICT practices could occur. A practice is described by Reckwitz as a “routinised type of behaviour which consists of several elements, interconnected to one another: ... bodily activities, ... mental activities, ‘things’ and their use, a background knowledge in the form of understanding, know-how, states of emotion and motivational knowledge” (2002; p. 249). The routinized way of performing a Green IT Audit in organizations is also constituted by these elements and can thus be declared a practice. Ijab & Molla (2011) suggests that a practice approach provides a “useful lens to garner deeper and holistic understanding of the information systems that organisations develop, deploy, use and integrate for eco-sustainability” (p. 2). What the consultant do and his or her understanding of sustainable ICT will thus affect the way Green IT is explained to the client. In turn, the understanding of the client and their material infrastructure will also affect how the model is implemented in the organization. 
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7.
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8.
  • Nikulina, Varvara, 1987-, et al. (författare)
  • Planning transport futures. Backcasting vs forecasting.
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: 7TH INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON SUSTAINABILITY TRANSITIONS.
  • Konferensbidrag (refereegranskat)abstract
    • A quarter of the energy-related greenhouse gas emissions (GHG) originate from the transportation sector. Continuously increasing demand for transportation services worldwide is one of the main present-day urban challenges. One way to address this issue is to develop an integrated transportation system that can ensure confidence and comfort for the passengers. This will contribute not only to the customers’ experience, but also to operators and authorities through sustainable, cost effective and profitable services. Conversely, the lack of such a system or a poorly managed system prevents the economy and society from realizing its potential. In transition towards sustainability the planning process of complex systems such as transportation, often requires supportive tools and methods. The example of those is futures methodologies that assist decision making by providing information about possible futures. In the rapidly changing environment of the modern cities, forecasting tools do not always provide the expected outcomes since it is difficult to predict all the unexpected events. Therefore, there is a demand for alternative methods that not only grasp the constant changes, but also create additional value (for example, meeting the needs of multisectoral collaboration and creation of common vision). The present article investigates the usefulness of backcasting methodology in the planning process of the bus park and railway station in Kisumu, Kenya and Centralen in Gothenburg, Sweden compared to the standard forecasting methodologies. The paper’s contribution is a description of the Kenyan transportation system (which has not been studied in detail before), planning process and pertinent issues related to the stations both in Kisumu and Gothenburg. Based on the sharply contrasting contexts of global South and global North determined through field studies, interviews and feasibility study of futures methodologies, the paper concludes that backcasting is the most suitable methodology for both places rather than alternative approaches such as foresighting and SymbioCity, since it can be applied on the small scale, provides creative solutions and has a high level of integration of stakeholders.
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9.
  • Nikulina, Varvara, 1987-, et al. (författare)
  • Planning transport futures. Backcasting vs forecasting.
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: The 7th International Sustainability Transitions (IST) Conference. Wuppertal, Germany, 6-9 September 2016.
  • Konferensbidrag (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • A quarter of the energy-related greenhouse gas emissions (GHG) originate from the transportation sector. Continuously increasing demand for transportation services worldwide is one of the main present-day urban challenges. One way to address this issue is to develop an integrated transportation system that can ensure confidence and comfort for the passengers. This will contribute not only to the customers’ experience, but also to operators and authorities through sustainable, cost effective and profitable services. Conversely, the lack of such a system or a poorly managed system prevents the economy and society from realizing its potential. In transition towards sustainability the planning process of complex systems such as transportation, often requires supportive tools and methods. The example of those is futures methodologies that assist decision making by providing information about possible futures. In the rapidly changing environment of the modern cities, forecasting tools do not always provide the expected outcomes since it is difficult to predict all the unexpected events. Therefore, there is a demand for alternative methods that not only grasp the constant changes, but also create additional value (for example, meeting the needs of multisectoral collaboration and creation of common vision). The present article investigates the usefulness of backcasting methodology in the planning process of the bus park and railway station in Kisumu, Kenya and Centralen in Gothenburg, Sweden compared to the standard forecasting methodologies. The paper’s contribution is a description of the Kenyan transportation system (which has not been studied in detail before), planning process and pertinent issues related to the stations both in Kisumu and Gothenburg. Based on the sharply contrasting contexts of global South and global North determined through field studies, interviews and feasibility study of futures methodologies, the paper concludes that backcasting is the most suitable methodology for both places rather than alternative approaches such as foresighting and SymbioCity, since it can be applied on the small scale, provides creative solutions and has a high level of integration of stakeholders.
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