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  • Hallonsten, Olof (författare)
  • How expensive is Big Science? Consequences of using simple publication counts in performance assessment of large scientific facilities
  • 2014
  • Ingår i: Scientometrics. - 0138-9130. ; 100:2, s. 483-496.
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Although the nuclear era and the Cold War superpower competition have long since passed, governments are still investing in Big Science, although these large facilities are nowadays mostly geared towards areas of use closer to utility. Investments in Big Science are also motivated not only by promises of scientific breakthroughs but also by expectations (and demands) of measurable impact, and with an emerging global market of competing user-oriented Big Science facilities, quantitative measures of productivity and quality have become mainstream. Among these are rather simple and one-sided publication counts. This article uses publication counts and figures of expenditure for three cases that are disparate but all represent the state-of-the-art of Big Science of their times, discussing at depth the problems of using simple publication counts as a measure of performance in science. Showing, quite trivially, that Big Science is very expensive, the article also shows the absurd consequences of consistently using simple publication counts to display productivity and quality of Big Science, and concludes that such measures should be deemed irrelevant for analyses on the level of organizations in science and replaced by qualitative assessment of the content of the science produced.
  • Ekström, Veronica, 1975- (författare)
  • Det besvärliga våldet Socialtjänstens stöd till kvinnor som utsatts för våld i nära relationer
  • 2016
  • Doktorsavhandling (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • I avhandlingen analyseras hur våldsutsatta kvinnors behov tolkas, omförhandlas och anpassas för att kunna hanteras inom socialtjänstens organisation. Avhandlingens övergripande frågeställningar fokuserar på insatser och behov, betydelsen av socialtjänstens organisering och betydelsen av socialarbetarnas handlingsutrymme. Avhandlingen baseras på kvalitativa analyser av statliga propositioner, intervjuer med socialarbetare och med kvinnor som varit utsatta för våld i nära relationer. Det teoretiska ramverket bygger bland annat på Frasers (1989) teoretiska perspektiv som tar sin utgångspunkt i samhällets tolkningar av människors/gruppers behov av stöd, nyinstitutionell teori och teorier om gatubyråkrater. Avhandlingen visar att socialarbetares tolkningar är centrala aspekter av förhandlingen om hur våldsutsatta kvinnors behov och rätt till stöd ska förstås. Ett viktigt resultat i avhandlingen är att stödet till våldsutsatta kvinnor blir så pass olika. Avhandlingen ger inga svar i kvantitativa termer på hur olikheten är fördelad, men den ger exempel på hur olikheten tar sig uttryck. I kommuner där specialiseringen innebär att socialarbetarna på socialkontoret i första hand utreder behov och fattar beslut om insatser, måste det också finnas adekvata insatser att besluta om. Saknas det så erbjuds inte heller något stöd. Stödet till kvinnor som utsatts för våld i nära relationer blir också olika eftersom socialarbetare ställer olika krav eller sätter upp olika trösklar för att kvinnor ska få stöd. Avhandlingen visar att både gemensam kunskap och gemensam syn på sociala problem är centralt för att samarbetet inom den specialiserade socialtjänstens ska fungera och i längden också för vilket stöd människor kommer att erbjudas.
  • Frankelius, Per (författare)
  • Innovationen som tog skruv
  • 2015
  • Ingår i: Läkartidningen. - Stockholm : Läkartidningen Förlag AB. - 0023-7205. ; 112:20–21, s. 985-987
  • Tidskriftsartikel (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • Läkaren och professorn emeritus Per-Ingvar Brånemark avled 20 december 2014. Han etablerade området osseointegration, strukturell förbindelse mellan levande ben och ytan av ett artificiellt material, som i dag utnyttjas för allt från höftleder och fästelement för silikonproteser till hörapparater. 2011 fick Brånemark priset European Inventor Award i kategorin Lifetime achievement av det europeiska patentverket. Men processen från uppfinning till berömmelse var tidvis turbulent – både i medicinskt och ekonomiskt perspektiv.
  • GEXcel Work in Progress Report. Volume III Proceedings from GEXcel Theme 1: Gender, Sexuality and Global Change. Spring 2008
  • 2008
  • Proceedings (redaktörskap) (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • This is the second work-in-progress report documenting the research activities carried out within the framework of GEXcel’s first research theme, Gender, Sexuality and Global Change. As GEXcel Visting Fellows the authors spent varying periods of time at Örebro University in spring 2008 to work on their projects.During April 24–29, 2008 they all gave seminars at Örebro University where they presented and discussed their work in progress. This volume comprises the fruit of this work.
  • Johnson, Ericka, 1973- (författare)
  • Chemistries of Love. Impotence, erectile dysfunction and Viagra in Läkartidningen
  • 2008
  • Ingår i: NORMA. ; 3:1, s. 31-47
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • This article examines the discourse surrounding impotence, erectile dysfunction and Viagra in the Swedish medical journal Läkartidningen. It draws on articles published from 1990 to 2006, the eight years prior to and after Viagra’s 1998 introduction. Close reading of the articles has shown changes over this time period in how the impotent patient is defined. It has also revealed a transition in the discourse from the term impotence to erectile dysfunction. In these articles the role of the (female) partner in finding a solution to impotence and the social aspects of impotence also change dramatically once Viagra is available. Results from this study are contextualized against similar research that has examined the medical discourse around erectile dysfunction in the international arena.
  • Otto, Opira (författare)
  • Trust, identity and beer
  • 2013
  • Doktorsavhandling (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • This thesis explores the role and influence of institutions on agricultural labour transactions in Isunga village in Kiryandongo District, Midwestern Uganda. It primarily focuses on how farmers structure, maintain and enforce their labour relationships during crop farming. The study is based on semi-structured interviews of twenty households and unstructured interviews with representatives of farmers associations. These interviews show that other than household labour, the other common labour arrangements in the village include farm work sharing, labour exchanges and casual wage labour. Farm work sharing and labour exchanges involve farmers temporarily pooling their labour into work groups to complete tasks such as planting, weeding or harvesting crops on members' farms in succession. This is done under strict rules and rewarded with 'good' beer and food. Against this background, the study asks what institutions really are, why they matter and what we can learn about them. Literature suggests that institutions influence labour transactions by their effects on transaction costs and the protection of contractual rights. However, literature does not suggest which institutions are best for agricultural labour transactions. Taking institutions to be the 'rules of the game', with farmers as 'players' who strategically use these rules to their advantage, the study focused on the interaction between institutions and farmers. The major findings of the study are: (a) farmers' choices of institutions are influenced by the characteristics of transactions, the costs of using institutions for handling labour dealings, the fairness and predictability of the outcome of contract enforcement mechanisms, and socio-cultural factors such as kin/ethnic status, morality and affection, (b) formal institutions in Isunga are either weak, ineffective or absent. So, farmers rely heavily on institutions embedded in social norms and networks to structure their transactional relationships, to ensure the performance of the respective parties, and to settle disputes if they arise. The study concludes that agricultural labour transactions in Isunga involve judgements of personal characteristics and social roles expressed as reputation and trustworthiness.
  • Hasic, Tigran, 1969- (författare)
  • Reconstruction planning in post-conflict zones Bosnia and Herzegovina and the international community
  • 2004
  • Doktorsavhandling (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • The history of mankind has been plagued by an almost continuous chain of various armed conflicts - local, regional, national and global - that have caused horrendous damage to the social and physical fabric of cities. The tragedy of millions deprived by war still continues. This study sets out to understand the nature of reconstruction after war in the light of recent armed conflicts. It attempts to catalogue and discuss the tasks involved in the process of reconstruction planning by establishing a conceptual framework of the main issues in the reconstruction process. The case of Bosnia and Herzegovina is examined in detail and on the whole acts as the leit-motif of the whole dissertation and positions reconstruction in the broader context of sustainable development. The study is organized into two parts that constitute the doctoral aggregate dissertation – a combining of papers with an introductory monograph. In this case the introductory monograph is an extended one and there are six papers that follow. Both sections can be read on their own merits but also constitute one entity.The rebuilding of war-devastated countries and communities can be seen as a series of nonintegrated activities carried out (and often imposed) by international agencies and governments, serving political and other agendas. The result is that calamities of war are often accompanied by the calamities of reconstruction without any regard to sustainable development. The body of knowledge related to post-conflict reconstruction lacks a strong and cohesive theory. In order to better understand the process of reconstruction we present a qualitative inquiry based on the Grounded Theory Method developed originally by Barney Glaser and Anselm Strauss (1967). This approach utilizes a complex conceptualization with empirical evidence to produce theoretical structure. The results of process have evolved into the development of a conceptual model, called SCOPE (Sustainable Communities in Post-conflict Environments).This study proposes both a structure within which to examine post-conflict reconstruction and provides an implementation method. We propose to use the SCOPE model as a set of strategy, policy and program recommendations to assist the international community and all relevant decision-makers to ensure that the destruction and carnage of war does not have to be followed by a disaster of post-conflict reconstruction. We also offer to provide a new foundation and paradigm on post-conflict reconstruction, which incorporates and integrates a number of approaches into a multidisciplinary and systems thinking manner in order to better understand the complexity and dependencies of issues at hand. We believe that such a systems approach could better be able to incorporate the complexities involved and would offer much better results than the approaches currently in use.The final section of this study returns to the fact that although it is probably impossible to produce universal answers, we desperately need to find commonalities amongst different postconflict reconstruction settings in order to better deal with the reconstruction planning in a more dynamic, proactive, and sustainable manner.
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