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  • Resultat 1-10 av 69
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1.
  • Ryan, Chris, et al. (författare)
  • Virtual City Experimentation: A Critical Role for Design Visioning
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: The Experimental City. - Routledge. - 9781138856202 ; s. 1-18
  • Bokkapitel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Here we introduce the idea of virtual city experimentation: a design approach to catalyse action in the context of rapidly emerging disruptive challenges to the fabric and life of cities. In the meaning we give to the term, the concept of virtual experimentation owes little to the contemporary association of ‘virtual’ with ‘digital’, or ‘on-line’. Independent of any technology used in the process, virtual here speaks about evoking the critical human ability to conceptualise alternative realities, to imagine and to explore in the mind other sets of relationships (social, physical, technological) than those currently evident in the lived-in world.
2.
  • Bauer, Fredric, et al. (författare)
  • Technological innovation systems for biorefineries – A review of the literature
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: Biofuels, Bioproducts and Biorefining. - John Wiley & Sons. - 1932-1031. ; 11:3, s. 534-548
  • Forskningsöversikt (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The concept of a bioeconomy can be understood as an economy where the basic building blocks for materials, chemicals, and energy are derived from renewable biological resources. Biorefineries are considered an integral part of the development toward a future sustainable bioeconomy. The purpose of this literature review is to synthesize current knowledge about how biorefinery technologies are being developed, deployed, and diffused, and to identify actors, networks, and institutions relevant for these processes. Several key findings can be obtained from the literature. First, investing more resources in R&D will not help to enable biorefineries to cross the ‘valley of death’ toward greater commercial investments. Second, while the importance and need for entrepreneurship and the engagement of small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) is generally acknowledged, there is no agreement how to facilitate conditions for entrepreneurs and SMEs to enter the field of biorefineries. Third, visions for biorefinery technologies and products have focused very much on biofuels and bioenergy with legislation and regulation playing an instrumental role in creating a market for these products. But there is a clear need to incentivize non-energy products to encourage investments in biorefineries. Finally, policy support for biorefinery developments and products is heavily intertwined with wider discussions around legitimacy and social acceptance. The paper concludes by outlining current knowledge gaps
3.
  • Bomb, Christian, et al. (författare)
  • Biofuels for Transport in Europe: Lessons from Germany and the UK
  • 2007
  • Ingår i: Energy Policy. - Elsevier. - 1873-6777. ; 35:4, s. 2256-2267
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The utilisation of biofuels is attracting growing support from the European Union and member states as a strategy to tackle climate change, enhance energy security, and contribute to regional development. This paper describes, compares, and analyses the markets for biofuels in Germany and the UK. The introduction of biofuels for transport in these member states provides contrasting pictures, and the success or failure of biofuels here is pertinent to the development and diffusion of biofuels across Europe. This paper concentrates on the socio-political context for the biofuels industry in Germany and the UK, discusses the lessons learned from the German and British experiences, and presents general conclusions for policy-makers that are predominantly relevant for the early stages of a biofuels industry. (c) 2006 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
4.
  • Boutin, Jean-Philippe, et al. (författare)
  • Alternative energy sources in transition countries: The case of bio-energy in Ukraine
  • 2007
  • Ingår i: Environmental Engineering and Management Journal. - Gh. Asachi Technical University of Iasi, Romania. - 1582-9596. ; 6:1, s. 3-11
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • During the transition to a market economy, many countries with a planned economy in Central and Eastern Europe face similar challenges when the established socio-economic systems and infrastructures deemed inefficient in a market economy. Also new issues are being raised by the trends of globalization and the vision of sustainable development. In the energy sector the challenges raised by the Kyoto Protocol and its implementation mechanisms are especially interesting, because they are intertwined with other socio-economic sectors. This paper addresses the challenges in the energy sector for transition countries, taking the case of bio-energy in the Ukraine as a prime example of a country undergoing major changes in its economic structures. Given the large potential for bio-energy development in the Ukraine, the current dependence on imported energy resources which threatens the Ukraine's energy security, and the economic, social and environmental benefits associated with bio-energy, this paper investigates drivers and barriers to an increased use of bio-energy in the Ukraine. The paper was written by a group of MSc students of the International Institute for Industrial Environmental Economics at Lund University during a field trip to Kiev city and the Lviv region in Ukraine. The field trip has been supported by the Swedish Institute.
5.
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6.
  • Busch, Henner, et al. (författare)
  • Local power: Exploring the motivations of mayors and key success factors for local municipalities to go 100% renewable energy
  • 2014
  • Ingår i: Energy, Sustainability and Society. - Springer. - 2192-0567. ; 4:5, s. 1-15
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • This paper investigates the decision-making processes of mayors on the municipal level in Brandenburg, Germany, to support 100% renewable energy policies as well as the respective key success factors. Three different cases and their specific settings are examined: (1) Turnow-Preilack with Germany's largest solar power plant, (2) Prenzlau, a town claiming the title 'City of Renewable Energy’ and (3) the village of Feldheim, the first energy independent settlement in Germany. On the basis of exploratory site visits and interviews, the process of implementation of renewable energy is investigated. The methodology developed here is based on the 'theory of planned behaviour’ which helps to visualise the individual decision-making processes of key actors. Not surprisingly, many different factors influence the investigated cases. The decision-making processes must be investigated in their context that is shaped by the attitudes of mayors, the expectation of how their actions will be perceived, and the control mayors estimate to have over projects. The identified factors point at the key finding that the mayors first and foremost think about the 'good of their municipality’. This does not necessarily refer to economic factors but can encompass aspects such as 'strengthening community life’. More abstract factors such as climate change or contributing to the transition of the national power supply play - if at all - a minor role. Policies that aim at supporting energy transitions in similar settings should therefore shift their focus from communicating climate change mitigation to the co-benefits that ambitious renewable energy policies can bring to a community.
7.
  • Farinelli, Ugo, et al. (författare)
  • "White and Green": Comparison of market-based instruments to promote energy efficiency
  • 2005
  • Ingår i: Journal of Cleaner Production. - Elsevier. - 0959-6526. ; 13:10-11, s. 1015-1026
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The "White and Green'' project completed under the EU SAVE Programme reviewed policies and measures to promote energy efficiency, which involved analysing the experience with instruments that are already implemented, and assessing innovative instruments that are proposed. In particular, the practicability of using ''White Certificates" energy efficiency) along the same lines as "Green Certificates" (renewable energy) was explored. Several of the policies. and measures, were simulated using technical-economic model of the MARKAL family. The results show that by 2020 it is possible to increase energy effiency by 15% at no cost without taking externalities into account. If externalities are considered, an increase of 30-35% with respect to the business-as-usual scenario is justified. The wealth of information obtained through the models and analysis provides a set of recommendations for policy-makers including: (1) the need for closer co-ordination between energy policies and environmental and climate policies; (2) the opportunity to establish more ambitious targets for energy efficiency; (3) the scope for increased EU co-ordination; (4) the extension of White Certificates to the medium and low energy-intensive industries; (5) the need to support White Certificates with accompanying actions, such as running information campaigns, promoting energy service companies, and, providing dedicated credit lines; (6) the need to develop similar instruments for transport and(7) the continuing need for energy research and development. (c) 2005 Published by Elsevier Ltd.
8.
  • Farinelli, Ugo, et al. (författare)
  • "White and Green": Conclusions and Recommendations
  • 2005
  • Rapport (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • The move towards the liberalisation of the energy markets in the whole world and the general shift from command-and-control to market mechanisms bring forward new ways of stimulating initiatives to increase the efficiency in the final uses of energy and demand-side management. In the past, energy policies were implemented in most countries by direct action of the governments through state monopolies, prescriptive legislation and in some cases incentives. With the progressive advent of liberalisation of the energy market and privatisation of state companies, the emphasis has shifted toward a regulation of the market that introduces economic corrections to take into account collective interests (such as externalities) and long-term objectives, which generally are not taken into due account by market forces in the absence of corrective measures. Policies based on incentives have also shown their limits. As they rarely use market forces effectively, the results obtained tend to have a higher cost than necessary and they may bring to a non-optimal development of new technology. Recently, the emergence of other problems - as shown by the power crisis in Sweden, the insufficient assurance given by the system to security of supply, some concerns about the quality of the service - have prompted a reconsideration of the regulation of the energy market. In this context, it is important to consider the ways in which the increase of the share of energy supplied by renewable sources and the increase in the efficiency of energy utilisation can be promoted. These two measures are considered the mainframe of any sustainable energy strategy and necessary steps to contrast the threats of climate change.
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9.
  • Fast, Stewart, et al. (författare)
  • Biofuels: From a win-win solution to a wicked problem?
  • 2012
  • Ingår i: Biofuels. - Taylor & Francis. - 1759-7277. ; 3:6, s. 737-748
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Current and recent struggles encountered in the development of the transport biofuels sector indicate a significant change in the perception of biofuels. Instead of a win-win solution, transport biofuels have become a major planning challenge. In fact, biofuels can be labelled a wicked problem. The planning studies literature offers some tools to interpret this change and guide future actions. First, by assessing recent experiences of biofuels in the EU and US against the ten characteristics of wicked problems we find biofuels “fit” the profile of such issues. Second, we observe that differentiated strategies will suit the different challenges facing biofuels development. We argue that without recognition and engagement of multiple perspectives on transport biofuels they will remain a wicked problem and we therefore advocate for strengthened approaches to communication and engagement.
10.
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