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Sökning: hsv:(SAMHÄLLSVETENSKAP) hsv:(Annan samhällsvetenskap) > Doktorsavhandling

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  • Stepanova, Olga, 1981- (författare)
  • Conflict resolution in coastal management: Interdisciplinary analyses of resource use conflicts from the Swedish coast
  • 2015
  • Doktorsavhandling (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • Natural resource use conflicts at urbanized coasts and their analysis and resolution are the main themes of this thesis. Based on the analysis of four conflict cases from the Swedish coast, I explore the ways the local management of coastal resources may be connected with a broader notion of sustainable resource management. Two questions guide this study. The first one is in regard to the theoretical and methodological development of coastal conflict research. It asks whether and how coastal conflicts can be analysed in an interdisciplinary manner. In answer to this research question, I developed an interdisciplinary conceptual framework for the analysis of local coastal conflicts. This framework is an example of the form that methodologies for interdisciplinary knowledge integration can take in a natural resource management study. The framework combined and integrated knowledge from different discourses and disciplines of environmental conflict research with the knowledge from empirical conflict studies and allowed for more integrated and complex conflict analysis. The second question is practice and management oriented and concerns how practical conflict resolution can be improved with sustainable coastal resource management as a goal. The findings highlight the importance combinations of formal and informal resolution strategies have, the key role of practices of knowledge use and the importance of power imbalances among stakeholders for conflict resolution. By setting out to link together the analyses of conflicts and conflict resolution in the practice of resource management and policy with the normative aspects of sustainable resource management, I highlight that interdisciplinary analyses of resource use conflicts and integrated approaches to conflict resolution should be incorporated in sustainable resource management and planning as a necessary part.
  • Ekström, Veronica, 1975- (författare)
  • Det besvärliga våldet Socialtjänstens stöd till kvinnor som utsatts för våld i nära relationer
  • 2016
  • Doktorsavhandling (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • I avhandlingen analyseras hur våldsutsatta kvinnors behov tolkas, omförhandlas och anpassas för att kunna hanteras inom socialtjänstens organisation. Avhandlingens övergripande frågeställningar fokuserar på insatser och behov, betydelsen av socialtjänstens organisering och betydelsen av socialarbetarnas handlingsutrymme. Avhandlingen baseras på kvalitativa analyser av statliga propositioner, intervjuer med socialarbetare och med kvinnor som varit utsatta för våld i nära relationer. Det teoretiska ramverket bygger bland annat på Frasers (1989) teoretiska perspektiv som tar sin utgångspunkt i samhällets tolkningar av människors/gruppers behov av stöd, nyinstitutionell teori och teorier om gatubyråkrater. Avhandlingen visar att socialarbetares tolkningar är centrala aspekter av förhandlingen om hur våldsutsatta kvinnors behov och rätt till stöd ska förstås. Ett viktigt resultat i avhandlingen är att stödet till våldsutsatta kvinnor blir så pass olika. Avhandlingen ger inga svar i kvantitativa termer på hur olikheten är fördelad, men den ger exempel på hur olikheten tar sig uttryck. I kommuner där specialiseringen innebär att socialarbetarna på socialkontoret i första hand utreder behov och fattar beslut om insatser, måste det också finnas adekvata insatser att besluta om. Saknas det så erbjuds inte heller något stöd. Stödet till kvinnor som utsatts för våld i nära relationer blir också olika eftersom socialarbetare ställer olika krav eller sätter upp olika trösklar för att kvinnor ska få stöd. Avhandlingen visar att både gemensam kunskap och gemensam syn på sociala problem är centralt för att samarbetet inom den specialiserade socialtjänstens ska fungera och i längden också för vilket stöd människor kommer att erbjudas.
  • Otto, Opira (författare)
  • Trust, identity and beer
  • 2013
  • Doktorsavhandling (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • This thesis explores the role and influence of institutions on agricultural labour transactions in Isunga village in Kiryandongo District, Midwestern Uganda. It primarily focuses on how farmers structure, maintain and enforce their labour relationships during crop farming. The study is based on semi-structured interviews of twenty households and unstructured interviews with representatives of farmers associations. These interviews show that other than household labour, the other common labour arrangements in the village include farm work sharing, labour exchanges and casual wage labour. Farm work sharing and labour exchanges involve farmers temporarily pooling their labour into work groups to complete tasks such as planting, weeding or harvesting crops on members' farms in succession. This is done under strict rules and rewarded with 'good' beer and food. Against this background, the study asks what institutions really are, why they matter and what we can learn about them. Literature suggests that institutions influence labour transactions by their effects on transaction costs and the protection of contractual rights. However, literature does not suggest which institutions are best for agricultural labour transactions. Taking institutions to be the 'rules of the game', with farmers as 'players' who strategically use these rules to their advantage, the study focused on the interaction between institutions and farmers. The major findings of the study are: (a) farmers' choices of institutions are influenced by the characteristics of transactions, the costs of using institutions for handling labour dealings, the fairness and predictability of the outcome of contract enforcement mechanisms, and socio-cultural factors such as kin/ethnic status, morality and affection, (b) formal institutions in Isunga are either weak, ineffective or absent. So, farmers rely heavily on institutions embedded in social norms and networks to structure their transactional relationships, to ensure the performance of the respective parties, and to settle disputes if they arise. The study concludes that agricultural labour transactions in Isunga involve judgements of personal characteristics and social roles expressed as reputation and trustworthiness.
  • Hasic, Tigran, 1969- (författare)
  • Reconstruction planning in post-conflict zones Bosnia and Herzegovina and the international community
  • 2004
  • Doktorsavhandling (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • The history of mankind has been plagued by an almost continuous chain of various armed conflicts - local, regional, national and global - that have caused horrendous damage to the social and physical fabric of cities. The tragedy of millions deprived by war still continues. This study sets out to understand the nature of reconstruction after war in the light of recent armed conflicts. It attempts to catalogue and discuss the tasks involved in the process of reconstruction planning by establishing a conceptual framework of the main issues in the reconstruction process. The case of Bosnia and Herzegovina is examined in detail and on the whole acts as the leit-motif of the whole dissertation and positions reconstruction in the broader context of sustainable development. The study is organized into two parts that constitute the doctoral aggregate dissertation – a combining of papers with an introductory monograph. In this case the introductory monograph is an extended one and there are six papers that follow. Both sections can be read on their own merits but also constitute one entity.The rebuilding of war-devastated countries and communities can be seen as a series of nonintegrated activities carried out (and often imposed) by international agencies and governments, serving political and other agendas. The result is that calamities of war are often accompanied by the calamities of reconstruction without any regard to sustainable development. The body of knowledge related to post-conflict reconstruction lacks a strong and cohesive theory. In order to better understand the process of reconstruction we present a qualitative inquiry based on the Grounded Theory Method developed originally by Barney Glaser and Anselm Strauss (1967). This approach utilizes a complex conceptualization with empirical evidence to produce theoretical structure. The results of process have evolved into the development of a conceptual model, called SCOPE (Sustainable Communities in Post-conflict Environments).This study proposes both a structure within which to examine post-conflict reconstruction and provides an implementation method. We propose to use the SCOPE model as a set of strategy, policy and program recommendations to assist the international community and all relevant decision-makers to ensure that the destruction and carnage of war does not have to be followed by a disaster of post-conflict reconstruction. We also offer to provide a new foundation and paradigm on post-conflict reconstruction, which incorporates and integrates a number of approaches into a multidisciplinary and systems thinking manner in order to better understand the complexity and dependencies of issues at hand. We believe that such a systems approach could better be able to incorporate the complexities involved and would offer much better results than the approaches currently in use.The final section of this study returns to the fact that although it is probably impossible to produce universal answers, we desperately need to find commonalities amongst different postconflict reconstruction settings in order to better deal with the reconstruction planning in a more dynamic, proactive, and sustainable manner.
  • Brosché, Johan, 1978- (författare)
  • Masters of War The Role of Elites in Sudan’s Communal Conflicts
  • 2014
  • Doktorsavhandling (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • Why do communal conflicts turn violent in some regions but not in others? Communal conflicts pose a severe threat to human security and kill thousands of people each year, but our understanding of this phenomenon is still limited. In particular, we lack knowledge about why some of these conflicts become violent while others are resolved peacefully. This study addresses this knowledge gap and has a novel approach by addressing subnational variations that are unexplained by previous research. The theoretical framework combines insights from three different perspectives focusing on the role of the state, elite interactions, and conditions for cooperation over common resources. Empirically, the research question is investigated by combining within- and between-region analyses of three Sudanese regions: Darfur, Eastern Sudan, and Greater Upper Nile. Despite sharing several similar characteristics, communal conflicts have killed thousands in Darfur and Greater Upper Nile but only a few dozen in Eastern Sudan. The empirical analysis builds on extensive material collected during fieldwork.This study generates several conclusions about the importance of government conduct and how state behavior contributes to the prevalence of violent communal conflicts. It finds that when governments act in a biased manner – favoring certain communities over others – interactions between central and local elites as well as among local elites are disrupted. Unconstructive elite interactions, in turn, have negative effects on three mechanisms that are crucial for communal cooperation. First, when the regime is biased, communal affiliation, rather than the severity and context of a violation, determines the sanctions that are imposed on the perpetrators. Second, government bias leads to unclear boundaries, which contribute to violent communal conflicts by creating disarray and by shifting power balances between the communities. Third, regime partiality distances rules from local conditions and restricts the influence of local actors who have an understanding of local circumstances. The study also reveals why a regime acts with partiality in some areas but not in others. The answer to this question is found in the complex interplay between the threats and opportunities that a region presents to the regime. Taken together, the findings have important implications for the prevention and management of communal conflict.
  • Lundin, Anette (författare)
  • Rättfärdigade prioriteringar en kvalitativ analys av hur personal i äldreomsorgen hanterar motstridiga verksamhetslogiker
  • 2017
  • Doktorsavhandling (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • This dissertation aims at contributing to social scientific knowledge about prevailing prioritizations in eldercarepractice by looking at an economic and a caring logic, and how these logics are overlapping, contradictory or comein conflict with each other. A more concrete aim is to understand how the personnel describe their work with orfor balance between the logics and their justifications prioritizations made in the care of older persons. The researchquestion is: How do personnel and care unit manager at a public nursing home understand and handle the twologics that govern care work for facilitating wellbeing of the residents. The aim and research question led to threesub-aims: 1) to analyze the personnel’s experiences of and meaning making about the care work they carry out, 2)to illuminate and problematize the two logics above, and 3)to analyze how the personnel justify their prioritizationsin prevailing context, and how their accountability have an effect on their professional identities.Empirical material was gathered through 13 individual interviews with care personnel and their care unitmanager at a public nursing home in Sweden. These interviews were complemented by a group interview. Thematerial was analyzed by the use of three methods: phenomenology (Paper I and II), reflexive analysis (Paper III),and a positioning analysis (Paper IV). Paper I found that the personnel understands the residents’ well-being asbeing characterized by feeling of being existentially touched. This essence is constituted by feeling freedom ofchoice, pleasure, and closeness to someone or something. In Paper II, the work for facilitating this kind of wellbeingwas characterized by three ambiguities: (i) freedom of choice for the older persons vs. institutionalconstraints, (ii) the residents' need for activation vs. wanting not to be activated, and (iii) the residents' need forroutine vs. the eldercarers' not being able to know what the residents need. Paper III showed that the care unitmanager created a hybrid of the two logics (economy is care and vice versa) and that the personnel oppose thishybrid. The opposition is shaped as the personnel divides their work in care and “those other things”. Thesefindings showed how interaction between the logics expresses itself in practice and that it is the personnel who hasto handle contradictions between the logics in their everyday care work. The positioning analysis in Paper IV hadthree levels. The first level showed how the carers align with their peers and that they find the organizationalframe, within which they have agency, changed due to increased workload. This change led to an order of priorities.The second level showed that the carers relate to three aspects when making accounts: the care itself, the olderpersons, and the media. The third level showed that the carers share a view of administration, cleaning, servingmeals, and filling up supplies, as not being parts of caring.The dissertation’s theoretical framework focused on theories on logics, accountability, and professionalidentity. The conclusion is that both logics are needed in order to facilitate the well-being of the older persons. Therelationships between the two logics are not always clear and if their contradictions are not illuminated, there is arisk for a care practice that does not facilitate the well-being of their residents. An important theoreticalcontribution is that logics of activities should be understood vertically (form political, through management, anddown to the level of practice) instead of horizontally. The practical implications emphasize the importance ofsupporting the personnel’s professional identity on the one hand, and discussing the logics on the other. Byunderstanding differences between definitions on management-level and practice level, a homogeneity can bereached.
  • Eidevald, Christian, 1973- (författare)
  • Det finns inga tjejbestämmare Att förstå kön som position i förskolans vardagsrutiner och lek
  • 2009
  • Doktorsavhandling (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • Studier har visat att förskolans personal bemöter flickor och pojkar utifrån stereotypa föreställningar om kön och snarare förstärker än utmanar dessa. Därför är fokus i denna avhandling att se vilka positioner hos flickor och pojkar som accepteras och vilka som möter motstånd i förskolan. På så sätt analyseras barns könsmässiga "identitetsskapande" kritiskt utifrån på vilka olika sätt det är möjligt att vara flicka och pojke och vilka omedvetna antaganden om kön och genus som görs av barn och vuxna.Den teoretiska utgångspunkten är feministisk poststrukturalism och i analysen är variationen mellan grupperna flickor och pojkar, variationen inom grupperna samt variationen inom individer i fokus. Utifrån empirin, som består av videoinspelade sekvenser från två arbetslag med barn i åldrarna 3-5 år och fokusgruppssamtal med de vuxna, görs olika "läsningar" utifrån olika antaganden (diskurser): Beroende på om antagandet är att flickor och pojkar "egentligen" är olika eller lika, kommer olika bemötanden att framstå som mer eller mindre självklara. Genom att visa att flera olika diskurser är verksamma samtidigt beskrivs det könsmässiga "identitetsskapandet" som mycket komplext.De analyserade situationerna visar att flickor och pojkar i förskolan definieras och bemöts stereotypt men att detta döljer en stor variation av hur olika flickor och olika pojkar positionerar sig i olika sammanhang. Förskollärarna arbetar på detta sätt aktivt med att skilja på flickor och pojkar utifrån att de betraktas som antingen flickor eller pojkar. Förväntningarna blir sedan avgörande för hur olika barn bemöts i olika situationer. En diskussion förs avslutningsvis kring vad detta kan ge för pedagogiska konsekvenser för ett jämställdhetsarbete, där även alternativa diskurser och handlingsmönster skrivs fram.
  • Johansson, Erika, 1969- (författare)
  • HOUSE MASTER SCHOOL: Career Model for Education and Training in Integrated and Sustainable Conservation of Built Environments
  • 2008
  • Doktorsavhandling (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • Based on a participatory action research methodology and approach (AR), this dissertation explores the core theoretical problems and opportunities of education and learning for sustainable development (ESD) within the cross-disciplinary area of integrated and sustainable conservation of built environments. The main purpose has been to develop an epistemological framework for integrated lifelong learning, ethics and advanced research (R&D) and to provide a new sustainable education and career model for the field to be applied in the Dalecarlia region and on a national level within the Swedish construction industry at large; i.e. the House Master School (HMS). This includes the development of a new professional “House Master”; a new conservation and sustainable building „process manager‟ or engineer at the interface between various disciplines and with an emphasis on high quality and traditional crafts and design, refurbishment and reuse, preventive conservation and long-term maintenance of the built environment. The HMS is developed according to the principles of integrated lifelong learning, ESD and the Bologna Model for higher education in Europe and will be implemented as part of a well-coordinated training strategy, nationally as well as internationally, including initiation of specific training and exchange programs and R&D. The Swedish approach to transdisciplinary case study research (TCSR) and educational system development has been used as placed in an international context. An outline and assessment of the contribution of action research, critical systems thinking and complexity theory is provided as part of the overall research methodology and design. The main aim of this R&D project has been to promote a sound understanding and conceptualization of meta-theoretical foundations, functions, structures, drivers, needs and dynamic applicability of methods to support integrated lifelong learning and ESD, research and development within the Swedish building sector and to provide a new innovative education and career model, which if implemented successfully, would have a direct impact on the environment, the economy, community and sustainable development processes at large. By using the HMS Model as a case study, this research entails a commitment to socially transformative research - i.e. the methodology is grounded in a vision of educational and organizational change based on an integration of ecological and conservation values. This includes an identification of deficiencies and needs in existing education and training systems, including an assessment of anticipated qualification and emerging learning needs with an emphasis on integrated architectural conservation, construction maintenance and crafts education and training. The aim is to provide new and enhanced career opportunities for young construction students, particularly engineers, skilled trades and craftspeople, as well as for other professionals in need for continuing professional development (CPD) and training in this field. This dissertation demonstrates the epistemological basis, an appropriate conceptual framework and an organizational and methodological design for educational change and development, integrated lifelong learning and ESD for the construction and architectural heritage field at large. If proved successful, the HMS Model may be used as a demonstrative and be adapted and transferred to other relevant sectors, regions and/or countries. It argues that an appropriate education and conservation policy and an integrated life cycle approach are important factors for obtaining sustainability and lifelong learning and for launching new sustainable education and training programs, new products and processes, enterprises, R&D, standards and principles for the future. The central argument is that sustainability/ESD is an ongoing multi-dimensional learning process that seeks and requires cultural change through (a) transdisciplinary education, learning and research, (b) multidisciplinary team- and networked approaches to educational development and change and (d) participatory and communicative action between various disciplines, institutions, NGOs, companies/SMEs and stakeholders. A key lesson derived from this research is the need for preventative systemic thinking and increased stakeholder participation in architectural conservation and construction projects and in inter- and cross-disciplinary research (R&D), in urban and rural development planning and especially the planning for such education and training.
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