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Sökning: hsv:(SAMHÄLLSVETENSKAP) hsv:(Annan samhällsvetenskap) > VTI - Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut

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1.
  • Hrelja, Robert, 1974-, et al. (författare)
  • Parkeringsnormer för bostäder Porslinsfabriken – ett exempel på samspelet mellan läge, kollektivtrafik- och parkeringsutbud
  • 2016
  • Rapport (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • I denna rapport analyseras effekterna av sänkta parkeringsnormer för bostäder för invånarna i det centrumnära, och relativt nybyggda, bostadsområdet Porslinsfabriken i Göteborg. Porslinsfabriken är med en relativt låg parkeringsnorm på 0,57 platser per lägenhet ett bra exempel på en parkeringspolitik som förs i alltfler kommuner. Resultatet visar att 19 procent av hushållen har minskat bilinnehavet, och man kör även färre antal mil på grund av parkeringsmöjligheterna. En majoritet har emellertid inte förändrat bilinnehavet eller bilanvändningen. Det fanns få skillnader mellan grupper med olika sysselsättning, utbildning, inkomst, ålder, kön och/eller familjesituation i bilinnehav, bilanvändning, eller med avseende på parkeringens konsekvenser för vardagslivet.De allra flesta är nöjda med parkeringssituationen. En parkeringsnorm på 0,57 för centralt belägna bostadsområden med god kollektivtrafikförsörjning, närhet till service och bra förutsättningar för gång-, cykel-, och kollektivtrafik möjliggör sammantaget en minskad bilanvändning. Utbudet av parkeringsplatser i närområdet gav emellertid boende möjligheter att välja mellan parkeringsplatser. En majoritet boende privatbilspendlar som tidigare och många andra har kvar sin bil. Parkeringsnormen kunde därför ha varit lägre. En praktisk implikation av resultaten är att en lägre parkeringsnorm vid nyproduktion av flerfamiljshus måste åtföljas av ett väl samordnat batteri olika åtgärder som god tillgång på kollektivtrafik, höjning av parkeringsavgifter, minskning av allmänna parkeringsplatser och så vidare.
2.
  • Berg, Jessica (författare)
  • Everyday Mobility and Travel Activities during the first years of Retirement
  • 2016
  • Doktorsavhandling (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • Mobilitet är en förutsättning för oberoende, delaktighet och välbefinnande när man åldras. Utgångspunkten i avhandlingen är att pensioneringen innebär tidsrumsliga förändringar och brott i rutiner som på olika sätt påverkar människors behov av att resa och deras förutsättningar för mobilitet. Syftet med avhandlingen är att utforska mobilitetsstrategier och förändringar i mobilitet i samband med pensioneringen samt hur mobiliteten utvecklas under de första åren som pensionär. Ambitionen är att öka kunskapen om i vilken utsträckning nya pensionärer upprätthåller en önskad mobilitet utifrån deras egna behov och förutsättningar. Avhandlingen baseras empiriskt på resedagböcker som nyblivna pensionärer har fört och kvalitativa intervjuer med samma personer, samt uppföljningsintervjuer tre och ett halvt år senare. Resultaten visar att mobiliteten är en strategi för att skapa en struktur i vardagen som pensionär genom att komma hemifrån, t.ex. för att ta en promenad eller för att uträtta ärenden. Många vardagsmönster behålls vid pensioneringen men informanterna finner också nya åtaganden och söker nya sociala arenor och aktiviteter. Betydelsen av bilen har inte förändrats men den används av andra anledningar än tidigare. Vid pensioneringen skapas andra tidsrumsliga begränsningar vilka inverkar på efterfrågan på mobilitet. Resultaten visa också att "tredje platser" blir viktiga, särskilt bland dem som lever ensamma, eftersom de ger en möjlighet att vara en del av ett socialt sammanhang och en anledning att komma hemifrån. Uppföljningsintervjuerna visade att förutsättningarna för mobilitet förändras när hälsan försämras. Promenaderna blir kortare och bilen används i högre utsträckning för de ärenden dit de tidigare kunde gå eller cykla. Men trots allvarliga sjukdomar och långa perioder av rehabilitering kan mobiliteten upprätthållas. 
3.
  • Berg, Jessica (författare)
  • Mobility changes during the first years of retirement
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: Quality in Ageing and Older Adults. - Emerald Group Publishing Limited. - 1471-7794. ; 17:2, s. 131-140
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Purpose – Mobility is an important aspect of well-being, activity and participation. Retiring from paid work is a transition in later life when people need to adjust to a new daily structure and fill the day with activities other than work. Life-course transitions influence demands for mobility and choice of travel mode as people adapt to new circumstances and learning processes. The purpose of this paper is to explore how mobility strategies develop during the first years of retirement.Design/methodology/approach – A qualitative analysis based on initial interviews with a total of 27 retired people during their first year of retirement and again, about three years later.Findings – Important changes during the first years of retirement included illness or a decline in physical health. Mobility had become a means of achieving certain goals after an illness, such as learning to walk, being able to drive or enjoying the time that was left. While some enjoyed not having commitments, others experienced difficulties in filling the day. The results indicate four dimensions of mobility: means of carrying out activities which are needed and desired; resources for creating activities; a leisure activity in itself; and subordinate to staying at home.Originality/value – Gives a deeper understanding of the mobility challenges people ultimately face in later life, and how these are managed, which is important for transport planning and public health policy aimed at improving mobility, activity participation and well-being in later life.
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5.
  • Lindberg, Malin, et al. (författare)
  • Boundary dimensions of social innovation : negotiating conflicts and compatibilities when developing a national agenda
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: Innovation. The European Journal of Social Sciences. ; s. 1-14
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • In order to add to the existing knowledge on the complex institutional dynamics of negotiating conflicts and compatibilities in innovation processes that address societal challenges and social needs, this article scrutinizes the scientific and societal debate on the theoretical and practical application of “social innovation” by means of the concept “boundary object” linked to institutional theory. A participatory case study of the development of an R&I agenda for social innovation in Sweden, formulated through dialog between stakeholders from the public, private and non-profit sectors, is presented. The results show that the unpredictable, emergent, evolving and adaptable character of needs, challenges and solutions in social innovation processes is made more theoretically and practically manageable by acknowledging social innovation as a boundary object. This is since this concept, despite its ambiguous character, helps balance complexity and usefulness in a way that serves to expand existing knowledge on institutional dynamics.
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6.
  • Abbas, Khaled A (författare)
  • Environmentally sustainable transport strategies the way forward in metropolitan cities
  • 2001
  • Ingår i: Proceedings of the conference Traffic Safety on Three Continents : International conference in Moscow, Russia, 19-21 September, 2001. - Linköping : Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut. ; s. 12
  • Konferensbidrag (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • This paper is concerned with one of the three requirements of a sustainable transport system, namely the environmental dimension. It starts by presenting components and interactions of the transport and traffic systems using causal diagrams. Generic traffic problems are identified and their causes categorized. A classification of demand and supply-based policies and measures that can be used in designing environmentally sustainable transport strategies is depicted. Such strategies are targeted towards minimizing the generic traffic problems encountered in metropolitan cities, i.e., traffic congestion, accidents, environmental degradation and energy inefficiencies. In this paper, Travel Demand and Land Use Management are considered as two of the basic pillars for designing environmentally sustainable transport strategies. Criteria for comparing demand versus supply-based policies are suggested. These are applied to assess the benefits and limitations of each policy, hence assisting decision makers in the prioritization and choice of such policies.
7.
  • Ahlström, Christer, et al. (författare)
  • Performance of a one-camera and a three-camera system
  • 2010
  • Rapport (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • Driving and operating a vehicle is to a great extent a visual task. In driver behaviour studies it is therefore important to be able to measure where the driver is looking. Today this can be done unobtrusively and remotely in real-time with camera based eye tracking. The most common remote eye tracking systems use multiple cameras in order to give satisfactory results. However, promising results using only one camera has recently emerged on the market. The main objective of this study is to compare eye tracking systems with one and three cameras, respectively, during various measurement conditions.A total of 53 participants were enrolled in the study. Data from the two eye trackers were acquired and analysed in terms of availability, accuracy and precision. The results indicate that both availability and accuracy are affected by many different factors. The most important factors are the number of cameras that is used and the angular distance from straight ahead. In the central region (straight ahead) both one-camera and three-camera systems have a high degree of accuracy and availability, but with increasing distance from the central region, the results deteriorate. This effect falls harder upon the one-camera system. Interestingly, there were no significant effects when wearing glasses in either availability or accuracy. There was however an interaction effect between distance and glasses.Advantages with a one-camera system are that it is cheaper, easier to operate and easier to install in a vehicle. A multi-camera system will, on the other hand, provide higher availability and accuracy for areas that are far from the road centre. A one-camera system is thus mostly suitable for in-vehicle applications such as systems that warn drivers for sleepiness or distraction while multi-camera solutions are preferable for research purposes.
8.
  • Ahmed, Ishtiaque, et al. (författare)
  • Urban Road Accidents in Dhaka, Bangladesh
  • 2013
  • Ingår i: Proceedings of the 16th International Conference Road Safety on Four Continents : Beijing, China. 15-17 May 2013. - Linköping : Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut.
  • Konferensbidrag (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • Dhaka, the capital city of Bangladesh, is the most vulnerable city both in terms of total number of accidents and accident rates. A total number of 2,720 accidents occurred during 2007-2011. This has caused a total of 1,481 numbers of pedestrian fatal accidents with 1,562 pedestrian fatal casualties. The primary objective of the paper is to study the characteristics of the road traffic accidents in Dhaka. The study area for this study is Dhaka Metropolitan Area. The paper focused on a few selected parameters a) Trend in overall accident rates b) Monthly variation of accident rates c) Accidents by severity levels d) Collision types e) Accidents in different lighting conditions. The raw data in the form of Accident Report Forms (ARFs) were collected from Dhaka Metropolitan Police (DMP). A GIS database was prepared for accidents showing locations and details for the period of 2007-2011. The analysis showed that on an average, the total number of traffic accidents is reduced by 11% each year. No profound effect of weather/season on road accidents is found. Fatal accidents and motor collisions are decreasing while injury accidents are increasing. Most traffic accidents: cause fatality (69%) and hit a pedestrian (60%). Fifty four percept of the accidents occurred during daytime. The paper recommends improvement measures for the road accident data collection and management system in Dhaka, Bangladesh. That includes the training need for the police staff, need for a geo-referenced database for data storage and management and involvement of multiple agencies in the process. This paper also recommends further studies on the extent and characteristics of underreporting of accidents.
9.
  • Anund, Anna, et al. (författare)
  • The effect of milled rumble strips versus virtual rumble strips on sleepy drivers a driving simulator study
  • 2009
  • Rapport (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • The aim of the EU project IN-SAFETY is to create effective combinations of traditional infrastructure measures combined with new technology to increase the self-explanatory and forgiving nature of the road traffic system. This report describes the method, results and conclusions of a driving simulator experiment with the aim to evaluate the effect of two scenarios of importance selected on a theoretical framework within IN-SAFETY: lane departure warning in terms of milled rumble strips or as a driver support system, and the effect of an in-vehicle warning system informing there is a school bus ahead, simulating a system based on vehicle to vehicle information. Concerning the "lane departure warning", the experiment considered possibilities and consequences of replacing the infrastructure element milled rumble strips with a haptic in-vehicle system. Both centre and side line rumble strips on a two-lane highway were studied and compared with a baseline. In-vehicle "School bus ahead warning" was considered as an example of in-vehicle information used to inform the driver of upcoming events. Both rumble strips and school bus warning was studied for drivers after not having slept the night before driving as well as after a night's sleep in order to investigate consequences of driver state on system effectiveness. The results showed that there is a potential to substitute the infrastructure measure rumble strips with an in-vehicle assistance system. Moreover, in-vehicle information was found to be an effective way of reducing the subjects' speeds during temporary critical situations concerning traffic safety.
10.
  • Anund, Anna, et al. (författare)
  • The effects of driving situation on sleepiness indicators after sleep loss : A driving simulator study
  • 2009
  • Ingår i: Industrial Health. - 0019-8366. ; 47:4, s. 393-401
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Almost all studies of sleepy driving are carried out in driving simulators and with monotonous road conditions (no interaction with other cars). The present study investigated indicators of sleepy driving in a more challenging scenario after a night awake. 17 participants drove a high fidelity moving base driving simulator experiment while sleepiness was monitored physiologically and behaviourally. Short periods of situations of free driving (no other vehicles) alternated with short periods of following another vehicle (car following) with and without the possibility to overtake. The result showed that a night of prior sleep loss increased sleepiness levels at the wheel (eye closure duration and lateral variability) compared to after a night of normal sleep. Blink duration while overtaking was significantly lower compared to the other situations, it was at the same level as after night sleep. Speed when passing a stopped school bus was not significantly affected by sleepiness. However the warning caused a more rapid reduction of speed. In conclusion, a moderately challenging driving contest did not affect sleepiness indicators, but a very challenging one did so (overtaking). This suggests that it is important to monitor the driving situation in field operational tests of sleepy driving.
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