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  • Brosché, Johan, 1978- (författare)
  • Masters of War The Role of Elites in Sudan’s Communal Conflicts
  • 2014
  • Doktorsavhandling (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • Why do communal conflicts turn violent in some regions but not in others? Communal conflicts pose a severe threat to human security and kill thousands of people each year, but our understanding of this phenomenon is still limited. In particular, we lack knowledge about why some of these conflicts become violent while others are resolved peacefully. This study addresses this knowledge gap and has a novel approach by addressing subnational variations that are unexplained by previous research. The theoretical framework combines insights from three different perspectives focusing on the role of the state, elite interactions, and conditions for cooperation over common resources. Empirically, the research question is investigated by combining within- and between-region analyses of three Sudanese regions: Darfur, Eastern Sudan, and Greater Upper Nile. Despite sharing several similar characteristics, communal conflicts have killed thousands in Darfur and Greater Upper Nile but only a few dozen in Eastern Sudan. The empirical analysis builds on extensive material collected during fieldwork.This study generates several conclusions about the importance of government conduct and how state behavior contributes to the prevalence of violent communal conflicts. It finds that when governments act in a biased manner – favoring certain communities over others – interactions between central and local elites as well as among local elites are disrupted. Unconstructive elite interactions, in turn, have negative effects on three mechanisms that are crucial for communal cooperation. First, when the regime is biased, communal affiliation, rather than the severity and context of a violation, determines the sanctions that are imposed on the perpetrators. Second, government bias leads to unclear boundaries, which contribute to violent communal conflicts by creating disarray and by shifting power balances between the communities. Third, regime partiality distances rules from local conditions and restricts the influence of local actors who have an understanding of local circumstances. The study also reveals why a regime acts with partiality in some areas but not in others. The answer to this question is found in the complex interplay between the threats and opportunities that a region presents to the regime. Taken together, the findings have important implications for the prevention and management of communal conflict.
  • Höglund, Kristine, 1974-, et al. (författare)
  • Hybrid Peace Governance and Illiberal Peacebuilding in Sri Lanka
  • 2012
  • Ingår i: Global Governance : A Review of Multilateralism and International Organizations. - 1075-2846. ; 18:1, s. 89-104
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • This article analyzes hybrid peace governance and illiberal peacebuilding in postwar Sri Lanka. While discussing the kind of hybridity that has emerged, it focuses specifically on the international/domestic nexus by exploring the interplay between international intervention and domestic politics of peace governance and public mobilization. The analysis demonstrates that there are social and political divides that support the hybrid structures of peace governance. These are not merely between local and international actors; but there is also a sharp division within the international community. In this way, illiberal international powers have been gaining influence and have contributed to shaping the situation domestically. Illiberal politics are particularly justified through mobilization against the liberal peacebuilding interventions of other international powers.
  • Larsdotter, Kersti (författare)
  • Fighting Transnational Insurgents : the South African Defence Force in Namibia, 1966-1989
  • 2014
  • Ingår i: Studies in Conflict and Terrorism. - 1057-610X. ; 37:12, s. 1024-1038
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Transnational insurgents are a common feature of contemporary wars, but research on how to address this problem is still scarce. This article examines the South African Defence Force's (SADF) counterinsurgency against Namibian transnational insurgents. It concludes that the South African forces focused a large amount of their efforts outside the borders of Namibia. Highly coercive operations in Angola and Zambia created the space for hearts and minds activities in Namibia, as well as forcing neighboring states to end their support for the insurgents. Although the war in Namibia is somewhat different from contemporary wars, SADF's cross-border strategy gives us some important insights into the regional dynamics of civil wars.
  • Pettersson, Therese, et al. (författare)
  • Armed conflicts, 1946-2014
  • 2015
  • Ingår i: Journal of Peace Research. - 0022-3433. ; 52:4, s. 536-550
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • In 2014, the Uppsala Conflict Data Program (UCDP) recorded 40 armed conflicts with a minimum of 25 battle-related deaths, up by six from 2013. This is the highest number of conflicts reported since 1999, and 11 of these conflicts were defined as wars, that is, conflicts generating 1,000 or more battle-related deaths in one calendar year. Further, an escalation of several conflicts, coupled with the extreme violence in Syria, resulted in the highest number of battle-related deaths in the post-1989 period. Yet, compared to the large-scale interstate wars of the 20th century, the number of fatalities caused by armed conflicts in 2014 was relatively low. Additionally, seven conflicts identified in 2013 were no longer active in 2014. However, four new conflicts erupted in 2014, all of them in Ukraine, and three previously registered conflicts were restarted by new actors. Furthermore, six conflicts reoccurred with previously registered actors. A positive development, however, is the increase to ten of the number of peace agreements concluded and signed in 2014, which represents a further four compared with 2013. And although this increase is part of a positive trend since 2011, it is worth noting that several peace processes remained fragile by the end of the year.
  • Eriksson, Maria, et al. (författare)
  • Witness or victim or actor – or all of these? Children with a father who is violent to their mother and children’s right to voice in family law proceedings
  • 2006
  • Ingår i: ISA XVI World Congress of Sociology.
  • Konferensbidrag (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • The paper presents preliminary findings from an ongoing explorative project in Sweden on children as social actors in family law proceedings, with particular focus on children whose father is violent to the mother. Since 1996 it is required by law that investigators, unless it is directly inappropriate, seek information about the child’s “view” and give information about this to the court. Until now, these encounters between children and family law investigators, and the implications for both children and professionals involved, have not been studied in any great detail in Sweden. The empirical material consists of three sets of qualitative data: semi-structured individual interviews with children; semi-structured group interviews with professionals from three work places; and written documentation (reports) submitted to the court by the professionals. The preliminary findings presented here concern notions of children who see and hear violence as ”witnesses to” and ”victims of” violence respectively, what such constructions mean for interpretations of children with a violent father, as well as for the professionals’ conversations with these children and documentation of the children’s perspectives.
  • Gender regimes, citizen participation and rural restructuring
  • 2008
  • Samlingsverk (redaktörskap) (populärvet., debatt m.m.)abstract
    • <h1>This book aims to unravel how rural gender regimes are constituted, enforced, made sense of and resisted, and ho struggles of resistance lead to empowerment and change in various countries in the four corners of Europe as well s Australia and India. The book focuses on the intricate relationship between laws and institutions and everyday life. It analyzes on the one hand how laws and institutions are constituted and on the other hand how gender regimes are built at the local rural level, sometimes in compliance with these frames and sometimes contesting them, The articles, in diverse ways, give voice both to women’s struggles for recognition and men’s voices in gendered rural societies. Through applying the concept of the welfare state and gender regimes within rural research, this book contributes to the further development of a comparative theoretical framework for rural gender studies. The importance of integrating rural gender studies into both the mainstreams of rural and feminist research has been emphasized in previous research, as has that of developing comparative analytical frameworks. The conceptual framework adopted in this volume wets out to meet this challenge by approaching rural gender relations and the meeting point of two core research areas: gender regimes and rural transformative processes. Research into gender regimes offers a promising analytical framework for comparing gender relations in diverse rural settings. At the same time, by addressing rural concerns deriving from the specificity of rural transition processes and gender regimes, the approach also contributes to an elucidation of the complexity of citizenship.</h1>
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