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Sökning: hsv:(SAMHÄLLSVETENSKAP) hsv:(Annan samhällsvetenskap) > Kungliga Tekniska Högskolan

  • Resultat 1-10 av 1097
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  • Hallonsten, Olof (författare)
  • How expensive is Big Science? Consequences of using simple publication counts in performance assessment of large scientific facilities
  • 2014
  • Ingår i: Scientometrics. - 0138-9130. ; 100:2, s. 483-496.
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Although the nuclear era and the Cold War superpower competition have long since passed, governments are still investing in Big Science, although these large facilities are nowadays mostly geared towards areas of use closer to utility. Investments in Big Science are also motivated not only by promises of scientific breakthroughs but also by expectations (and demands) of measurable impact, and with an emerging global market of competing user-oriented Big Science facilities, quantitative measures of productivity and quality have become mainstream. Among these are rather simple and one-sided publication counts. This article uses publication counts and figures of expenditure for three cases that are disparate but all represent the state-of-the-art of Big Science of their times, discussing at depth the problems of using simple publication counts as a measure of performance in science. Showing, quite trivially, that Big Science is very expensive, the article also shows the absurd consequences of consistently using simple publication counts to display productivity and quality of Big Science, and concludes that such measures should be deemed irrelevant for analyses on the level of organizations in science and replaced by qualitative assessment of the content of the science produced.
  • Hasic, Tigran, 1969- (författare)
  • Reconstruction planning in post-conflict zones Bosnia and Herzegovina and the international community
  • 2004
  • Doktorsavhandling (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • The history of mankind has been plagued by an almost continuous chain of various armed conflicts - local, regional, national and global - that have caused horrendous damage to the social and physical fabric of cities. The tragedy of millions deprived by war still continues. This study sets out to understand the nature of reconstruction after war in the light of recent armed conflicts. It attempts to catalogue and discuss the tasks involved in the process of reconstruction planning by establishing a conceptual framework of the main issues in the reconstruction process. The case of Bosnia and Herzegovina is examined in detail and on the whole acts as the leit-motif of the whole dissertation and positions reconstruction in the broader context of sustainable development. The study is organized into two parts that constitute the doctoral aggregate dissertation – a combining of papers with an introductory monograph. In this case the introductory monograph is an extended one and there are six papers that follow. Both sections can be read on their own merits but also constitute one entity.The rebuilding of war-devastated countries and communities can be seen as a series of nonintegrated activities carried out (and often imposed) by international agencies and governments, serving political and other agendas. The result is that calamities of war are often accompanied by the calamities of reconstruction without any regard to sustainable development. The body of knowledge related to post-conflict reconstruction lacks a strong and cohesive theory. In order to better understand the process of reconstruction we present a qualitative inquiry based on the Grounded Theory Method developed originally by Barney Glaser and Anselm Strauss (1967). This approach utilizes a complex conceptualization with empirical evidence to produce theoretical structure. The results of process have evolved into the development of a conceptual model, called SCOPE (Sustainable Communities in Post-conflict Environments).This study proposes both a structure within which to examine post-conflict reconstruction and provides an implementation method. We propose to use the SCOPE model as a set of strategy, policy and program recommendations to assist the international community and all relevant decision-makers to ensure that the destruction and carnage of war does not have to be followed by a disaster of post-conflict reconstruction. We also offer to provide a new foundation and paradigm on post-conflict reconstruction, which incorporates and integrates a number of approaches into a multidisciplinary and systems thinking manner in order to better understand the complexity and dependencies of issues at hand. We believe that such a systems approach could better be able to incorporate the complexities involved and would offer much better results than the approaches currently in use.The final section of this study returns to the fact that although it is probably impossible to produce universal answers, we desperately need to find commonalities amongst different postconflict reconstruction settings in order to better deal with the reconstruction planning in a more dynamic, proactive, and sustainable manner.
  • Boholm, Max, 1982- (författare)
  • The representation of nano as a risk in Swedish news media coverage
  • 2013
  • Ingår i: Journal of Risk Research. - 1366-9877. ; 16:2
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Focusing on the role of language in categorization and on the broad conceptual fi eld centred on the morpheme nano, this study addresses the association between phenomena referred to by words having nano as a constituent and risk in Swedish newspaper reporting. The study raises the question of how nano- associated phenomena (e.g. nanotechnology and nanoparticle) are represented as risks? Articles considered for analysis contain both a word having nano as a constituent and the Swedish words for risk or danger. Articles representing nano-associated phenomena (e.g. nanotechnology and nanoparticle) as risks mainly fall into one of five groups: (I) nanotechnology, without reference to particles, materials or products; (II) nanotechnology, nanoparticles, nanomaterials and/or products containing such particles and materials; (III) nanoparticles in products, but without reference to nanotechnology; (IV) nanotechnology and nanorobots; and (V) non-nanotechnological nanoparticles. For each group, using a theoretical approach addressing the relational nature of risk, the paper analyses representations of objects at risk, bad outcomes, causal conditions, reference to applications and sources cited. Various patterns of these categories emerge for the fi ve groups, indicating a diversi fi ed set of associations between nano and risk. In certain respects, the fi ndings support the results of other studies of media reporting on nanotechnology, suggesting certain international patterns of newspaper coverage of nanotechnology drawing on both science and science fiction.
  • Sandström, Christian, et al. (författare)
  • Idea management systems for a changing innovation landscape
  • 2010
  • Ingår i: International Journal of Product Development. - 1477-9056. ; 11:3/4, s. 310-324
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Over the last few decades, the nature of innovation has changed from being primarily related to incremental product innovation towards more business model innovation, discontinuous innovation and open innovation. These changes impose new demands on the ideation phase of the innovation process and on idea management systems. This article explores what an idea management system that handles some of these different forms of innovation ideas may look like. The studied idea management system differs from previous typologies in that it is dual, i.e., aiming to generate, evaluate and select both continuous and discontinuous innovation ideas and employing different processes and criteria within the same system.
  • Zalejska-Jonsson, Agnieszka (författare)
  • Stated WTP and rational WTP : willingness to pay for green apartments in Sweden
  • 2014
  • Ingår i: Sustainable Cities and Society. - 2210-6707. ; 13, s. 46-56
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Green buildings are expected to require lower operating costs, provide better indoor environment and have a lower impact on the environment than conventional buildings. Consequently, if renting or buying green property is more beneficial, a customer may be willing to pay extra for green apartment. The aim of this paper is to study stated and rational willingness to pay for green apartments in Sweden. A database consisting of responses from 477 occupants living in green and conventional multi-family buildings was used to investigate the existence of WTP and to test the difference in opinion between respondents living in green or conventional buildings and condominiums or rental apartments.The responses indicate that people are prepared to pay more for very low-energy buildings but not as willing to pay for a building with an environmental certificate. It was found that interest in and the perceived importance of energy and environmental factors affect the stated WTP. The results indicate that a stated willingness to pay for low-energy buildings of 5% can be considered a rational investment decision.
  • Morberg, Siv, et al. (författare)
  • The perceived perceptions of head school nurses in developing school nursing roles in schools
  • 2009
  • Ingår i: International Journal of Nursing Management. - 1365-2834. ; 17:7, s. 813-821
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Aim: To gain a deeper understanding of how Swedish head school nurses perceive their leadership in developing school health care. Background: A well-functioning school health care is important for promoting the health of children and young people. Method: Constructivist-grounded theory was used to analyse 11 individual interviews with nine head school nurses. Results Head school nurses strive to find a balance between what they experience as vague formal goals and strong informal goals which leads to creating local goals in order to develop school health care. Conclusion: The head school nurse's job is experienced as a divided and pioneering job in which there is uncertainty about the leadership role. They provide individual support to school nurses, are the link between school nurses and decision makers and highlight the importance of school nurses' work to organizational leaders. Implications for nursing management This study shows that school health care needs to be founded on evidence-based methods. Therefore, a structured plan for education and training in school health care management, based on research and in cooperation with the academic world, would develop the head school nurses' profession, strengthen the position of school health care and advance the school nurses' work.
  • Nelson, Anders (författare)
  • Children's toy collections in Sweden : A less gender-typed country?
  • 2005
  • Ingår i: Sex Roles. - 0360-0025. ; 52:1-2, s. 93-102
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The aim of this study was to describe and analyze differences between girls' and boys' toy collections in a country that strongly emphasizes gender equality (Sweden). The study was based on the assumptions that toy collections reflect social values in the society where they are found and that Sweden has less gendered values than do many other countries. The toy collections of 152 3- and 5-year old Swedish children were inventoried, and the results were analyzed and discussed in relation to previous research on children's toy collections and toy preferences in North America and Western Europe. The Swedish toy collections were found to be gender-typed in ways similar to those reported in previous research in other countries.
  • Öhman, Maj-Britt, et al. (författare)
  • Designing Dam Safeties Perspectives on large scale dams within the intra-actions of technology, nature and human decision making
  • 2013
  • Ingår i: International Commission of Large Dams, ICOLD, Seattle, 2013 : International Symposium. - Seattle : ICOLD.
  • Konferensbidrag (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Analyzing the intra-actions between the actors involved, this paper presents results from interviews and participatory observations with local authorities, local inhabitants, power companies representatives as well as dam operators. We argue that the Swedish model for dam safety currently is suffering from a major deficiency as the expertise and understanding of the technical constructions remain among the dam owners and that the societal authority in charge of supervising the dam owners work have no capability of achieving the same level of understanding and thus to take informed and relevant decisions. Furthermore we argue that the lack of technical understanding of dams and hydropower outside of the dam sector has become a huge threat to dam safety as state representatives and political decision makers currently allow and even encourage mining exploitation both next to high risk classified hydropower dams and even within existing hydropower reservoirs.We argue that the actual challenge to safeguard an increased dam safety is by bridging the gap between the multitude of different actors– engineers/operators, users, political decision makers -   in order to generate new understandings and new methodologies to deal with risk, safety and security. It is necessary to bridge the gaps between the sectors and actors involved, and that this should be done through investment in close collaboration between the dam sector and engineering research on the one hand and social sciences and humanities on the other – to ensure understandings of political decision making as well as of technical artifacts and water flows.The geographical focus is on two rivers – the Ume River and the Lule River in the north of Sweden. Both rivers are of major importance for national production of electricity, and the rivers are water suppliers for a large amount of inhabitants.
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