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Sökning: hsv:(SAMHÄLLSVETENSKAP) hsv:(Annan samhällsvetenskap) > Chalmers tekniska högskola

  • Resultat 1-10 av 1396
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  • Ahlborg, Helene, 1980-, et al. (författare)
  • Ecology and sociotechnical systems research – motivations for theoretical and methodological integration across fields
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: International Sustainability Transitions conference 2017.
  • Konferensbidrag (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • Currently, we are witnessing a number of global trends that do not promise well for the future. Accelerating climate change, loss of biodiversity, chemical pollution, disappearance of natural forest and degradation of fishing grounds and agricultural lands are just a few of the serious environmental problems that threaten the functional and structural integrity of ecosystems, to an extent that also human societies risk collapse. The scale of human impact is now such that scholars suggest that we live in the Anthropocene. The trends are driven by several linked factors, which are not easily disentangled into manageable specific problems to be solved by specific policies. More than ever, interdisciplinary and transdisciplinary collaborations are needed in order to address these urgent challenges. The objective of this paper is to argue for the importance of research on socio-technical-ecological systems (STES) rather than social-ecological (SES) and sociotechnical systems (STS) separately. Hence, we address researchers in both the social-ecological and sociotechnical fields. We organize the argument around six reasons why “technology” should be integrated into SES studies. We call these reasons: (1) the interface and mediation aspect, (2) ambivalence, (3) the agency aspect, (4) the question of scale, (5) the question of governance and politics, and (6) the question of epistemology and framing. We also highlight potential conceptual conflicts and mistranslations. Our discussion is primarily a theoretical argument, exemplified with empirical examples. Among the conceptual challenges, we note that SES scholars, if they consider technology in their analyses, generally treat it as an exogenous factor or as a passive background element. Similarly, STS scholars tend to neglect ecological dynamics and refer to the ecological domain mainly in terms of inputs and outputs, e.g. natural resources, environmental and health problems caused by human activities. In light of the discussion, we conclude that the importance of collaborating across the two fields goes beyond each field adding pieces together. We argue that integration and translation across these domains will lead to qualitative change in the theoretical and methodological approaches of both fields; and that technology, society and ecology should be given symmetric analytical attention.
  • Berlin, Cecilia, 1981-, et al. (författare)
  • Change Agent Infrastructure (CHAI) – a Stakeholder Analysis Tool for Ergonomics- and Work Environment- Related Change Projects
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: Proceedings of the 7th International Conference on Applied Human Factors and Ergonomics AHFE 2016, Walt Disney, Florida, USA 27-31 July 2016, Edited by T. Ahram, W. Karwowski, Springer Series on Advances in Intelligent Systems and Computing.. - 2194-5357. - 978-3-319-42069-1
  • Konferensbidrag (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • This paper is a short communication introducing a novel method for stakeholder analysis, Change Agent Infrastructure (CHAI). The method is specifically developed in the context of ergonomics/work environment-related change projects and is meant for early stages of change projects. It maps potential stakeholders against eight distinct “roles” that have been found in previous research to facilitate or hinder workplace change. Mapping the “decision dilemmas” that stakeholders may face, as well as identifying over- or underrepresented roles, may benefit the change project in terms of determining information needs and how the project team should be staffed. The method has been iteratively developed and tested in educational and research projects. The method is visual, participative and helps to clarify the various participants’ understanding of the change at hand and what it means for them – this contributes positively to information strategies and decisions that facilitates the planning and execution of a sustainable change.
  • Gillberg, Gunnar, 1959-, et al. (författare)
  • Livsformsanalys och lokalt utvecklingsarbete: En pilotstudie om analysmetodens potental vid studier av socialt kapital, social ekonomi och hållbar utveckling
  • 2002
  • Rapport (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • This report describes the outcome of an interdisciplinary project at the Department of Work Science at Göteborg Univer- sity and at the Department of Built Environment & Sustainable Development at Chalmers Architecture. The purpose of the project was to try out a specific method – Life Mode Analysis – and to analyse its potentials to support local development work, with a particular focus on social capital, and the two interrelated themes of social economy and sustainable development. The interviewees in the field investigation have a background as refugees, as the study take a special interest in under- standing how the method is functioning in housing areas where the inhabitants to a large extent have had such experiences. The results of the study indicate a need for an integration of theories concerning social exclusion into – or as a parallel to – Life Mode Analysis. At least, this seems to be a necessity if the method is to be used in areas with many refugees, such as the suburban areas from the 60s and 70s surrounding major swedish urban centres. In other respects, Life Mode Analysis seems to be a relevant and very useful method for facilitating local development work. This is due to its potential to indicate how people in different life modes choose to engage them selves in social life. In the report it is also discussed how social economy is related to social capi- tal, as it is dependent on the existence of social capital, and at the same time contributes to its production. Further, sustainable development is discussed – it is also related to social capital as this constitutes one of the four cornerstones which together define the notion of sustainable development.
  • Gluch, Pernilla, 1968-, et al. (författare)
  • The organizational nexus of changing management practices for sustainable renovation
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: Proceedings of the 32nd Annual ARCOM Conference, 5-7 September 2016, Manchester, UK.. ; 2, s. 1141-1150
  • Konferensbidrag (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Ambitiously set governmental sustainability targets together with a run-down building stock in need of renovation force public construction client organisations to find sustainable and new ways to renovate. Besides technology development, these challenges require that sustainability targets are embedded in decision making practices. Focusing on organising processes and management practices related to sustainable renovation of public buildings in Sweden this paper outlines a future research proposal that acknowledges the intertwined relationship between multi-levelled processes in sustainable renovation, i.e. unveiling the organisational nexus of renovation management practice. Findings from an ongoing case study were analysed by applying an analytical lens inspired by the theoretical framework of institutional work. Focusing on organization processes and management practices the case concerns a ‘strategy development process’ for renovation of public pre-schools in Gothenburg, Sweden. In total six meeting observations and eleven interviews were conducted. A conceptual model describing the organizational nexus of changing management practice for sustainable renovation is presented, from which a set of critical research questions for further investigation is derived.
  • Hagerall, Carolin, et al. (författare)
  • Human physiological benefits of viewing nature: EEG responses to exact and statistical fractal patterns.
  • 2015
  • Ingår i: Nonlinear Dynamics, Psychology, and Life Sciences. - Society for Chaos Theory in Psychology & Life Sciences. - 1090-0578. ; 19:1, s. 1-12
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Psychological and physiological benefits of viewing nature have been extensively studied for some time. More recently it has been suggested that some of these positive effects can be explained by nature's fractal properties. Virtually all studies on human responses to fractals have used stimuli that represent the specific form of fractal geometry found in nature, i.e. statistical fractals, as opposed to fractal patterns which repeat exactly at different scales. This raises the question of whether human responses like preference and relaxation are being driven by fractal geometry in general or by the specific form of fractal geometry found in nature. In this study we consider both types of fractals (statistical and exact) and morph one type into the other. Based on the Koch curve, nine visual stimuli were produced in which curves of three different fractal dimensions evolve gradually from an exact to a statistical fractal. The patterns were shown for one minute each to thirty-five subjects while qEEG was continuously recorded. The results showed that the responses to statistical and exact fractals differ, and that the natural form of the fractal is important for inducing alpha responses, an indicator of a wakefully relaxed state and internalized attention.
  • Laage-Hellman, Jens, 1947-, et al. (författare)
  • How Networks and Sectoral Conditions Affect Commercialization in a Knowledge Intensive Entrepreneurial Venture in the Medical Technology Industry: A case study of Aerocrine
  • 2015
  • Ingår i: Dynamics of Knowledge Intensive Entrepreneurship : Business Strategy and Public Policy/Edited by Franco Malerba, Yannis Caloghirou, Maureen McKelvey, Slavo Radoševic. - United Kingdom : Routledge. - 978-1-13-802528-8 ; s. 265-288
  • Bokkapitel (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • This chapter focuses upon the development of a KIE venture in the medical technology sector in Sweden. The case study described and analyzed in this chapter is very specific, but it also provides insights into the more general processes about developing and managing a KIE venture. So although the KIE venture is located in Sweden, the dimensions related to market, and indeed increasingly those related to finance and production, are global. In the context of this book, this chapters show how networks and specific conditions in the sectoral systems of innovation influence the development and performance of a knowledge intensive entrepreneurial (KIE) venture.
  • Marcheschi, Elizabeth, et al. (författare)
  • Home setting after stroke, facilitators and barriers: a systematic literature review
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: Health & Social Care in the Community. - 0966-0410. ; 26:4, s. E451-E459
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • This paper seeks to improve the understanding of the interaction between patients with stroke and the physical environment in their home settings. Stroke care is increasingly performed in the patient's home. Therefore, a systematic review was conducted to identify the existing knowledge about facilitators and barriers in the physical environment of home settings for the stroke rehabilitation process. Based upon Arksey and O'Malley's framework, a Boolean search strategy was performed in the databases; CINAHL, Medline, Web of Science and Scopus. Fifteen articles were retained from the literature search conducted between August and November 2016, and two researchers independently assessed their quality based on the Swedish Council on Health Technology Assessment guidelines. The results suggest that despite the healthcare system's ongoing shift towards home-based rehabilitation, the role played by the physical environment of home settings is still considered a side finding. Moreover, the research appears to focus mainly on how this environment supports mobility and activities of daily living, whereas information regarding the psychosocial and emotional processes that mediate the interaction between stroke survivors and their home setting are missing. A lack of information was also found with regard to the influence of different geographic locations on the stroke rehabilitation process. Future investigations are therefore needed to advance the understanding of the role played by the physical environment of home settings in supporting stroke recovery.
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