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Sökning: hsv:(SAMHÄLLSVETENSKAP) hsv:(Annan samhällsvetenskap) > Lantbruksvetenskap

  • Resultat 1-10 av 352
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  • Otto, Opira (författare)
  • Trust, identity and beer
  • 2013
  • Doktorsavhandling (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • This thesis explores the role and influence of institutions on agricultural labour transactions in Isunga village in Kiryandongo District, Midwestern Uganda. It primarily focuses on how farmers structure, maintain and enforce their labour relationships during crop farming. The study is based on semi-structured interviews of twenty households and unstructured interviews with representatives of farmers associations. These interviews show that other than household labour, the other common labour arrangements in the village include farm work sharing, labour exchanges and casual wage labour. Farm work sharing and labour exchanges involve farmers temporarily pooling their labour into work groups to complete tasks such as planting, weeding or harvesting crops on members' farms in succession. This is done under strict rules and rewarded with 'good' beer and food. Against this background, the study asks what institutions really are, why they matter and what we can learn about them. Literature suggests that institutions influence labour transactions by their effects on transaction costs and the protection of contractual rights. However, literature does not suggest which institutions are best for agricultural labour transactions. Taking institutions to be the 'rules of the game', with farmers as 'players' who strategically use these rules to their advantage, the study focused on the interaction between institutions and farmers. The major findings of the study are: (a) farmers' choices of institutions are influenced by the characteristics of transactions, the costs of using institutions for handling labour dealings, the fairness and predictability of the outcome of contract enforcement mechanisms, and socio-cultural factors such as kin/ethnic status, morality and affection, (b) formal institutions in Isunga are either weak, ineffective or absent. So, farmers rely heavily on institutions embedded in social norms and networks to structure their transactional relationships, to ensure the performance of the respective parties, and to settle disputes if they arise. The study concludes that agricultural labour transactions in Isunga involve judgements of personal characteristics and social roles expressed as reputation and trustworthiness.
  • Østensvik, Tove, et al. (författare)
  • Work exposure and complaints in a sample of French and Norwegian forest machine operators – A comparative field study within the ErgoWood programme.
  • 2005
  • Rapport (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • The aim of the present work is to evaluate muscle activity pattern, psychosocial working conditions and self-reported complaints of fatigue and pain in the neck, shoulders and forearms in two samples of forest machine operators driving harvesters in France and Norway. The EMG readings from four muscle groups were analysed in predetermined periods of sustained low level muscle activity (SULMA), ranging from 1.2-5 seconds up to > 20 minutes. The main result was the similarity between operators of the two different countries. Tendencies were found for higher static muscle activity and less muscular relaxation in all evaluated muscles in the French operators, but significant only for the right trapezius muscle. However, the level of muscular complaints was significantly higher among the Norwegian operators. The amount of both short and long SULMA was not significantly higher in the Norwegian group for the right side. This indicates that the amount of low-level muscle activity could be of higher importance than the gaps, or that the gaps are too short to have effect in reducing risk for discomfort or pain. The results indicate that the introduction of the SULMA concept may be of importance as a method for MSD risk assessment. Future work should concentrate on exploring the best linkage between SULMA and muscular complaints
  • Unraveling the logics of landscape
  • 2014
  • Samlingsverk (redaktörskap) (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • Despite conceptual oscillations through times, the concept of landscape remains highly subjective, whereupon unraveling its 'logics' opens up to a plurality of interpretations. Accordingly, by focusing on the interconnections present in the non-haphazard production of landscape, this publication elaborates on how the rural landscape is valued, monitored, changed, harbored, used and misused, be it through actions, representations or metaphors. This book covers a broad range of topics, with contributions from scholars from more than 30 countries.
  • Öhman, May-Britt, 1966- (författare)
  • Building a Sami Academy of Sciences : Science, Research, and Education for Decolonization
  • 2015
  • Ingår i: Indigenous Knowledge Sovereignties and Scientific Research.
  • Konferensbidrag (refereegranskat)abstract
    • May-Britt Öhman, Uppsala University (may-britt.ohman@gender.uu.se) Building a Sami Academy of Sciences: Science, Research, and Education for Decolonization  The production of technological modern identities within Scandinavia rests on the dispossession of Sámi people from our traditional lands, and thus our identities related to land and water. Technoscientific language and imagery continue to shape and reflect power relations which favor the modern nation states and dis-favor Sámi rights. Meanwhile there is currently a void of Sámi research platforms available, especially within Sweden. The vast majority of scholars doing research on Sámi territory and Sámi people are themselves non-Sámi. The current situation is highly problematic. It contributes to the creation of epistemological contexts which support increasing colonial exploitation and destruction of Sámi traditional territories. This paper describes an ongoing project to establish important structures and platforms to accommodate research initiated and led by Sámi in order to promote decolonization of technoscience for the benefit of the Sámi and Sámi society. The project includes a Sámi academy of sciences and a Sámi university. The presentation discusses collaborations with Sámi organisations, the Sámi parliament, individual reindeer herders, Sámi artists and film makers and other Sámi scholars. Important points of departure are to enable Sami peoples' continuance, healing and regeneration and to apply Sami knowledges and experiences as a basis for them to develop ecological innovations and technologies to facilitate the everyday life of reindeer herding.  
  • Staddon, Sam C., et al. (författare)
  • The social nature of participatory environmental monitoring
  • 2014
  • Ingår i: Society & Natural Resources. - 0894-1920. ; 27:9, s. 899-914
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Participatory ecological monitoring brings together conservationists and members of the public to collect data about changes in nature. This article scrutinizes the "social nature'' of such monitoring, considering not only its impacts for nature, but also society, and importantly the ways in which these interact. Drawing on the field of nature-society studies we present a framework with which to explore case studies from the community forests of Nepal. We document the importance of multiple knowledges of nature, including what is referred to as "local monitoring'' and its relation to the scientific procedures promoted in participatory monitoring; the consequences of participatory monitoring as a situated and embodied practice, such that it may (re) produce social inequalities; and the place of monitoring within the wider socioecological regime, with regard to possible unintended consequences for both nature and society. This article thus expands our understanding of the complexities of this increasingly popular approach to conservation.
  • Ahnström, Johan, et al. (författare)
  • Farmers' Interest in Nature and Its Relation to Biodiversity in Arable Fields
  • 2013
  • Ingår i: International Journal of Ecology. - Hindawi Publishing Corporation. - 1687-9708.
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Biodiversity declines in farmland have been attributed to intensification of farming at the field level and loss of heterogeneity at the landscape level. However, farmers are not solely optimizing production; their actions are also influenced by social factors, tradition and interest in nature, which indirectly influence biodiversity but rarely are incorporated in studies of farmland biodiversity. We used social science methods to quantify farmers’ interest in nature on 16 farms with winter wheat fields in central Sweden, and combined this with biodiversity inventories of five organism groups (weeds, carabid beetles, bumblebees, solitary bees, and birds) and estimates of landscape composition andmanagement intensity at the field level.Agricultural intensity,measured as crop density, and farmers’ interest in nature explained variation in biodiversity, measured as the proportion of the regional species richness found on single fields. Interest in nature seemed to incorporate many actions taken by farmers and appeared to be influenced by both physical factors, for example, the surrounding landscape, and social factors, for example, social motivations.This study indicates that conservation of biodiversity in farmland, and design of new agri-environmental subsidy systems, would profit from taking farmers’ interest in nature and its relation to agricultural practices into account.
  • Hagerall, Carolin, et al. (författare)
  • Human physiological benefits of viewing nature: EEG responses to exact and statistical fractal patterns.
  • 2015
  • Ingår i: Nonlinear Dynamics, Psychology, and Life Sciences. - Society for Chaos Theory in Psychology & Life Sciences. - 1090-0578. ; 19:1, s. 1-12
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Psychological and physiological benefits of viewing nature have been extensively studied for some time. More recently it has been suggested that some of these positive effects can be explained by nature's fractal properties. Virtually all studies on human responses to fractals have used stimuli that represent the specific form of fractal geometry found in nature, i.e. statistical fractals, as opposed to fractal patterns which repeat exactly at different scales. This raises the question of whether human responses like preference and relaxation are being driven by fractal geometry in general or by the specific form of fractal geometry found in nature. In this study we consider both types of fractals (statistical and exact) and morph one type into the other. Based on the Koch curve, nine visual stimuli were produced in which curves of three different fractal dimensions evolve gradually from an exact to a statistical fractal. The patterns were shown for one minute each to thirty-five subjects while qEEG was continuously recorded. The results showed that the responses to statistical and exact fractals differ, and that the natural form of the fractal is important for inducing alpha responses, an indicator of a wakefully relaxed state and internalized attention.
  • Lundqvist, Peter, et al. (författare)
  • Säker barnmiljö i lantbruket
  • 2013
  • Rapport (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • Lantbrukare har en arbetsmiljö som förknippas med många skade- och hälsorisker. Gården är inte bara en arbetsplats, det är också en hemmiljö för hela lantbrukarfamiljen, inte minst barnen. Livet på landet innehåller många spännande möjligheter för barn och ungdomar, men det finns också många farliga platser och situationer då de kan skadas. Varje år skadas barn i lantbruksmiljön, ibland med dödlig utgång – detta ska inte behöva ske om det finns fungerande barntillsyn för de mindre barnen och säkra miljöer att vistas i. Denna skrift har sitt fokus på erfarenheter, idéer och möjligheter att skapa en trygg utemiljö för barn i en gårdsmiljö. Framställningen är medvetet något ”provocerande” – för att väcka tankar och diskussioner kring hur vi ska agera för att skapa en säker uppväxtmiljö för barn och ungdomar som bor på ett lantbruk.
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