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1.
  • Azar, Denise, et al. (författare)
  • ‘Something's Brewing’ : the changing trends in alcohol coverage in Australian newspapers 2000–2011
  • 2014
  • Ingår i: Alcohol and Alcoholism. - Oxford : Oxford University Press. - 0735-0414. ; 49:3, s. 336-342
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Aims: The portrayal of alcohol in the news media, including newspapers, plays an important role in influencing societalnorms and setting public agendas. We present the first large-scale examination of news coverage of alcohol-related issues in Australiannewspapers.Method: Content analysis was performed on a sample of alcohol-related newspaper articles (n = 4217) published acrossAustralia from 2000 to 2011. Articles were coded for type, theme, prominence, topic slant, opinion slant and sources/spokesperson.Results: Across the period, the most common themes were promotion (21%), drink-driving (16%) and restrictions/policy (16%).Themes of restrictions/policy and responsible beverage services became more common over time. Promotion and business-related articlessignificantly declined over time. Overall, the topic slant of the majority of news related articles disapproved of alcohol use. Disapproval increased over time while approval of alcohol use decreased. While the slant of opinion pieces was predominantly approvingof alcohol, this decreased over time. Presence of an alcohol industry representative in articles declined over time.Conclusion: Thepresentation of alcohol use in Australian newspapers became more disapproving over time, which may suggest that harmful alcohol usehas become less acceptable among the broader Australian community.
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2.
  • Babor, T., et al. (författare)
  • Alcohol : No Ordinary Commodity – a summary of the second edition
  • 2010
  • Ingår i: Addiction. - 0965-2140. ; 105:5, s. 769-779
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • This article summarizes the contents of Alcohol: No Ordinary Commodity (2nd edn). The first part of the book describes why alcohol is not an ordinary commodity, and reviews epidemiological data that establish alcohol as a major contributor to the global burden of disease, disability and death in high-, middle- and low-income countries. This section also documents how international beer and spirits production has been consolidated recently by a small number of global corporations that are expanding their operations in Eastern Europe, Asia, Africa and Latin America. In the second part of the book, the scientific evidence for strategies and interventions that can prevent or minimize alcohol-related harm is reviewed critically in seven key areas: pricing and taxation, regulating the physical availability of alcohol, modifying the drinking context, drink-driving countermeasures, restrictions on marketing, education and persuasion strategies, and treatment and early intervention services. Finally, the book addresses the policy-making process at the local, national and international levels and provides ratings of the effectiveness of strategies and interventions from a public health perspective. Overall, the strongest, most cost-effective strategies include taxation that increases prices, restrictions on the physical availability of alcohol, drink-driving countermeasures, brief interventions with at risk drinkers and treatment of drinkers with alcohol dependence.
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5.
  • Babor, Thomas F., et al. (författare)
  • Drug Policy and the Public Good : a summary of the book
  • 2010
  • Ingår i: Addiction. - 0965-2140. ; 105:7, s. 1137-1145
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Drug Policy and the Public Good was written by an international group of scientists from the fields of addiction, public health, criminology and policy studies to improve the linkages between drug research and drug policy. The book provides a conceptual basis for evidence-informed drug policy and describes epidemiological data on the global dimensions of drug misuse. The core of the book is a critical review of the cumulative scientific evidence in five general areas of drug policy: primary prevention programmes in schools and other settings; health and social services for drug users; attempts to control the supply of drugs, including the international treaty system; law enforcement and ventures into decriminalization; and control of the psychotropic substance market through prescription drug regimes. The final chapters discuss the current state of drug policies in different parts of the world and describe the need for future approaches to drug policy that are coordinated and informed by evidence.
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7.
  • Bloomfield, Kim, et al. (författare)
  • Changes in Alcohol-Related Problems After Alcohol Policy Changes in Denmark, Finland, and Sweden
  • 2010
  • Ingår i: Journal of Studies on Alcohol and Drugs. - New Jersey : Rutgers, the State University of New Jersey. - 1937-1888. ; 71:1, s. 32-40
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Objective: European Union travelers' allowances for alcohol import to Denmark, Sweden, and Finland were abolished in 2004. In addition, excise taxes on alcohol were lowered in 2003 and 2005 in Denmark, and in 2004 in Finland. Using northern Sweden as a control site, this study examines whether levels of reported alcohol problems have changed in Denmark, Finland, and southern Sweden as a consequence of these policy changes. Method: Annual cross-sectional surveys were conducted in Denmark, Finland, and Sweden from 2003 to 2006. Five dependency items and seven extrinsic alcohol-related problems were examined. Changes were analyzed within each country/region with logistic regressions and tested for short- and long-term changes. Differential change was also tested between each country and the control site, northern Sweden. Results: Prevalence of alcohol problems decreased over the study period. Only in selected subgroups did problems increase. This mainly occurred in the samples for northern Sweden and Finland, and mostly among older age groups and men. In relation to the control site, however, no increases in problem prevalence were found. Conclusions: Our findings on a decline in reported alcohol problems largely agree with published reports on alcohol consumption over the same period in the study countries. They do not agree, however, with findings on changes in health and social statistics in Finland and Denmark, where some significant increases in alcohol-related harm have been found.
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8.
  • Bobak, M., et al. (författare)
  • Contributions of drinking patterns to differences in rates of alcohol related problems between three urban populations
  • 2004
  • Ingår i: Journal of Epidemiology. - 0917-5040. ; 58:3, s. 238-242
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Objectives: To examine, on empirical data, whether drinking patterns, in addition to overall alcohol consumption, contribute to differences in rates of alcohol related problems between populations. Design: Cross sectional survey. Settings: One Russian, one Polish, and one Czech city. Participants: 1118 men and 1125 women randomly selected from population registers. Main outcome measures: Problem drinking; negative social consequences of drinking; alcohol consumption and drinking pattern. Results: Rates of problem drinking and of negative consequences of drinking were much higher in Russian men (35% and 18%, respectively) than in Czechs (19% and 10%) or Poles (14% and 8%). This contrasts with substantially lower mean annual intake of alcohol reported by Russian men (4.6 litres) than by Czech men (8.5 litres), and with low mean drinking frequency in Russia (67 drinking sessions per year, compared with 179 sessions among Czech men). However, Russians consumed the highest dose of alcohol per drinking session (means 71 g in Russians, 46 g in Czechs, and 45 g in Poles), and had the highest prevalence of binge drinking. In women, the levels of alcohol related problems and of drinking were low in all countries. In ecological and individual level analyses, indicators of binge drinking explained a substantial part of differences in rates of problem drinking and negative consequences of drinking between the three countries. Conclusions: These empirical data confirm high levels of alcohol related problems in Russia despite low volume of drinking. The binge drinking pattern partly explains this paradoxical finding. Overall alcohol consumption does not suffice as an estimate of alcohol related problems at the population level.
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9.
  • Bodin, MC, et al. (författare)
  • Predictors of abstinence and nonproblem drinking after 12-step treatment in Sweden
  • 2006
  • Ingår i: Journal of Studies on Alcohol. - 0096-882X. ; 67:1, s. 139-146
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • OBJECTIVE:The aims of this study were to identify individual predictors of 12 months continuous abstinence and nonproblem drinking after Swedish inpatient Minnesota Model treatment and to evaluate the outcome variance explained by pretreatment, within-treatment, and posttreatment factors for each outcome, separately and in conjunction.METHOD:One-hundred and twenty-nine men and 47 women were interviewed on admission to Swedish Minnesota Model treatment and after 12 months. Two interviewers who were not involved in treatment delivery performed structured interviews. Statistical analyses included bivariate and multivariate logistic regression models applied to pair-wise contrasts of three types of treatment outcome.RESULTS:The final multivariate models for the three pair-wise contrasts explained 71% (abstinence vs problem drinking), 44% (nonproblem drinking vs problem drinking), and 25% (abstinence vs. nonproblem drinking) of outcome variance. Abstention and nonproblem drinking were both differentiated from problem drinking by the completion of aftercare, satisfaction with treatment, and number of public addiction care contacts. When contrasted with nonproblem drinking, abstention was predicted by the endorsement of a baseline goal to stop drinking and a higher degree of posttreatment affiliation with mutual-help groups.CONCLUSIONS:Results from this study support the fact that treatment is only one of many factors that contributes to an outcome and suggests issues that may need consideration in similar treatment settings.
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10.
  • Bond, Jason, et al. (författare)
  • Exploring Structural Relationships Between Blood Alcohol Concentration and Signs and Clinical Assessment of Intoxication in Alcohol-Involved Injury Cases
  • 2014
  • Ingår i: Alcohol and Alcoholism. - 0735-0414. ; 49:4, s. 417-422
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Aims: Although the relationship between the Y90 (blood alcohol concentration, BAC) and Y91 (clinician intoxication assessment) ICD-10 codes has received attention recently, the role of 10 signs of intoxication in the Y91-Y90 relationship has not been studied yet. This work examines these signs in the estimation of alcohol intoxication levels of patients in medical settings. Methods: Collected and analyzed were data on 1997 injured emergency room patients from 17 countries worldwide reporting drinking prior to injury or presenting with a non-zero BAC from 17 countries worldwide. A model is estimated describing how the 10 signs inform the Y91, Y90 prediction with the goal of the use of observations on patients in place of a biological measure. Results: Signs were consistent with a single underlying construct that strongly predicted Y91. Smell of alcohol on breath predicted Y91 above its contribution through the construct and was stronger for those with tolerance to alcohol than for those without. Controlling for Y91, no sign further contributed to prediction of Y90 indicating that Y91 incorporated all intoxication sign information in predicting Y90. Variance explained was high for Y91 (R-2 = 0.84) and intoxication signs (above 0.72 for all but smell on the breath, 0.57) and lower for Y90 (0.38). Conclusion: Intoxication assessments are well predicted by overall intoxication severity, which itself is well represented by intoxication signs along with differential emphasis on smell of alcohol on breath, especially for those with alcohol tolerance. However, BAC levels remain largely unexplained by intoxication signs with a clinician's assessment serving as the primary predictive measure.
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