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Sökning: hsv:(SAMHÄLLSVETENSKAP) > Johansson Börje

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  • Johansson, Börje, et al. (författare)
  • Globalization and distribution of exports
  • 2012
  • Ingår i: The regional economics of knowledge and talent : local advantage in a global context. - Edward Elgar Publ.. - 9781848443280 ; s. 300-319
  • Bokkapitel (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • During the 1980s many economists started to use the term globalization as a catchword for an increased interaction between countries in world trade. The literature does not provide a clear definition of globalization. We set up a number of criteria and formulate hypotheses about globalization that we explore for Swedish export flows during the years 1965-2000. Globalization, in this study, is referred to as increases in country diversity, extended transport radii, less effect of distance on trade flows, and the ratio of exports to the importing countries’ incomes. The results from the empirical analysis do not support the hypotheses of increasing trade globalization. It is rather the case that export flows are becoming more internationally regionalized.
  • Loof, Hans, et al. (författare)
  • R&D Strategy, Metropolitan Externalities and Productivity: Evidence from Sweden
  • 2014
  • Ingår i: Industry and Innovation. - Routledge. - 1366-2716. ; 21:2, s. 141-154
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • This paper studies the influence of metropolitan externalities on productivity for different types of long-run R&D engagement based on information from the Community Innovation Survey. We apply a dynamic general method of moments model to a panel of manufacturing and service firms with different locations in Sweden, classified as a metropolitan region, the largest metropolitan region, a metropolitan city, the largest metropolitan city and a nonmetropolitan area. This analysis generates three distinct results. First, the productivity premium associated with persistent R&D is close to 8 per cent in nonmetro locations and about 14 per cent in the largest city. Second, a firm without any R&D engagement does not benefit at all from the external milieu in metro areas. Third, no productivity premium is associated with occasional R&D effort regardless of the firm's location.
  • Agglomeration, Clusters And Entrepreneurship : Studies in Regional Economic Development
  • 2014
  • Samlingsverk (redaktörskap) (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • Regional economic development has experienced considerable dynamism over recent years. Perhaps the most notable cases were the rise of China and India to emergent country status by the turn of the millennium. With time now for hindsight, this book identifies some of the key forces behind these development successes, namely agglomeration, clusters and entrepreneurship.
  • Alpfält, Tina, et al. (författare)
  • Scope of export varieties and innovation milieu of local economies
  • 2012
  • Konferensbidrag (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Innovation by firms and industries requires that the individual firm can combine internal and external knowledge resources. This paper studies product innovations as they are reflected by product varieties and destination markets, combined into observations of firms’ destination-specific varieties(variety pairs). The number of varieties (identified in this way) measuresthe extensive margin of exportflows from industries in local economies, reflecting past product and market (destination) innovations made by industries in each local economy. The empirical analysis identifies for each industry and local economy (i) the intra-industry knowledge resources, (ii) the local access to the supply knowledge-intensive producer services, and (iii) the access to the supply of knowledge-intensive producer servicesoutside the local economy. Thepapercontributes to existing knowledgein several ways. First, it introduces a knowledge-supply accessibility measure to model the local innovation milieu. Second, it shows the joint contribution to product innovation from internal and external knowledge sources. The estimation results supports the hypothesis that innovations are generated in the conjunction of internal and external knowledge.
  • Andersson, Martin, et al. (författare)
  • Dynamics of Entry and Exit of Product Varieties – what evolution dynamics can account for the empirical regularities?
  • 2009
  • Rapport (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • Firm-level heterogeneity is substantial even in narrowly defined industries. This paper focuses on formulating evolution dynamics which can account for the observed heterogeneity and its maintenance. Based on examination of data on Swedish firm’ supply pattern to different markets over time, we present a parsimonious model that has the ambition to capture the picture of heterogeneous firms, while accommodating the simultaneous exit and entry of destination varieties in firms’ supply pattern. The model assumes both scale economies of firms and pathdependence, where the latter is manifested in such a way that the arrival rate of innovation ideas to an individual firm is a function of each firm’s stock of varieties at every given point in time. The path-dependence phenomenon is an “explosive” non-linearity, whereas conservation mechanisms include development of demand and exit of established varieties. The described path dependence explains the skewed distribution of varieties across firms, but the question of what keeps the “equilibrium” away from competitive exclusion where only few large firms remain. We make use of simulations to depict and assess the innovation dynamics of the proposed model.
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