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Sökning: hsv:(SAMHÄLLSVETENSKAP) > Heshmati Almas

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1.
  • Heshmati, Almas, et al. (författare)
  • Analysis of Landmine Fatalities and Injuries in the Kurdistan Region
  • 2015
  • Ingår i: Journal of Interpersonal Violence. - 0886-2605. ; 30:15, s. 2591-2615
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • This study analyzes landmine victim data in the Kurdistan Region during the period 1960 to 2005. A regression analysis is used to identify the determinants and impact of the probability of getting killed by mines and unexploded ordnances. The rates of killed/injured victims are explained using a set of socioeconomic variables. As the data are a repeated cross-section in which the individuals are observed when they are subjected to landmine incidents, and to account for the dynamic aspect of the process and heterogeneity by location as well as to control for unobserved location and time effects, a pseudo panel data are created where districts are observed over the entire time period forming a panel data. The results show that (a) males, children, and the elderly are more susceptible to a higher level of landmine risks; (b) landmine training and awareness programs do not reduce the rate of landmine mortality; and (c) the rate of incidents are declining over time. This result can be used in the planning, monitoring, and resource allocation for mine action, as well as labor market programs and rehabilitation activities.
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2.
  • Abolhosseini, Shahrouz, et al. (författare)
  • A Review of Renewable Energy Supply and Energy Efficiency Technologies
  • 2014
  • Rapport (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • Electricity consumption will comprise an increasing share of global energy demand during the next two decades. In recent years, the increasing prices of fossil fuels and concerns about the environmental consequences of greenhouse gas emissions have renewed the interest in the development of alternative energy resources. In particular, the Fukushima Daiichi accident was a turning point in the call for alternative energy sources. Renewable energy is now considered a more desirable source of fuel than nuclear power due to the absence of risk and disasters. Considering that the major component of greenhouse gases is carbon dioxide, there is a global concern about reducing carbon emissions. In this regard, different policies could be applied to reducing carbon emissions, such as enhancing renewable energy deployment and encouraging technological innovations. Two main solutions may be implemented to reduce CO2 emissions and overcome the problem of climate change: replacing fossil fuels with renewable energy sources as much as possible and enhancing energy efficiency. In this paper, we discuss alternative technologies for enhancing renewable energy deployment and energy use efficiency.
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3.
  • Abolhosseini, Shahrouz, et al. (författare)
  • Energy security and competition over energy resources in Iran and Caucasus region
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: AIMS Energy. - AIMS Press. - 2333-8326. ; 5:2, s. 224-238
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Energy security as a dominant factor in international stability is of great importance for major economies. The global energy market with its current level of supply and demand relies on energy sources in the Middle East, Caucasus, Central Asia and Russia. After the Fukushima disaster nuclear powers in Europe view renewable energy sources as a serious alternative. Europe’s energy vulnerability has deteriorated due to the Russia-Ukraine conflict. However, renewable energy sources are not large enough to replace nuclear power completely. This trend will continue with climbing demand especially in the natural gas sector as clean energy. In this research, Caucasus and Iran are considered the main sources and routes for energy transmission to the global market, including Europe. Caucasus plays a key role in bridging Europe and Asia. Also, Iran is an alternative for energy transmission to Europe after lifted sanctions. As part of the European active supply diversification policy Iran has capacity to reduce Europe’s energy dependency on Russia. However, changes in US new administration America First Policy is harmful for the EUs energy security. Caucasus aims to catch a large share of the European energy market since the Baku-Tbilisi-Ceyhan pipeline has started operations and Iran is also trying to expand its market to become a sustainable source of energy for major consumers. Therefore, Iran and Caucasus are considered reliable energy suppliers for Europe. In this regard, we analyze the best motivation for changing the direction new suppliers’ energy policies towards Europe and suggest alternative solutions to compete with rival countries in order to enhance energy security.
4.
  • Abolhosseini, Shahrouz, et al. (författare)
  • The Effect of Renewable Energy Development on Carbon Emission Reduction: An Empirical Analysis for the EU-15 Countries
  • 2014
  • Rapport (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • The increased concerns about climate change have made renewable energy sources an important topic of research. Several scholars have applied different methodologies to examine the relationships between energy consumption and economic growth of individual and groups of countries and to analyze the environmental effects of energy policies. Previous studies have analyzed carbon emission savings, using renewable energy usage as an individual source or in combination with traditional sources of energy (e.g., hybrid plants) in connection with lifecycle analysis methods. It is shown that after a certain period, economic growth leads to the promotion of environmental quality. However, econometric modelling critiques have opposed the results of these studies. One reason is that the effectiveness of governance-related parameters has previously been neglected. In this research, we analyze the impact of renewable energy development on carbon emission reduction. We estimate a model to evaluate the effectiveness of renewable energy development, technological innovation, and market regulations in carbon emission reduction. The empirical results are based on a panel data estimation using the EU-15 countries data observed from 1995 to 2010. The elasticities of CO2 emissions are estimated, in order to evaluate the effectiveness of each parameter. The findings show that the effects of a negative climate change could be mitigated by governance-related parameters instead of economic development.
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5.
  • Abolhosseini, Shahrouz, et al. (författare)
  • The main support mechanisms to finance renewable energy development
  • 2014
  • Ingår i: Renewable & sustainable energy reviews. - 1364-0321. ; 40, s. 876-885
  • Forskningsöversikt (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • Considering that the major part of greenhouse gases is carbon dioxide, there is a global concern aimed at reducing carbon emissions. In addition, major consumer countries are looking for alternative sources of energy to avoid the impact of higher fossil fuel prices and political instability in the major energy supplying countries. In this regard, different policies could be applied to reduce carbon emissions, such as enhancing renewable energy deployment and encouraging technological innovation and the creation of green jobs. This study compares three main support mechanisms employed by governments to finance renewable energy development programs: feed-in-tariffs, tax incentives, and tradable green certificates. Considering that many of the promising technologies to deploy renewable energy require investment in small-scale energy production systems, these mechanisms could be used to enhance renewable energy development at the desired scale. Employing a carbon emission tax or emission trading mechanism could be considered ideal policies to mitigate emissions at the lowest cost. The comparison of feed-in-tariffs and renewable portfolio standard policies showed that the former is good when a policy to develop renewable energy sources with a low level of risk for investors is considered. However, the latter is an appropriate policy when a market view policy is applied by the government. Finally, considering technological progress and the cost reduction for power generation by renewable energy sources, we suggest that support mechanism policies should be reconsidered from the financial point of view. (C) 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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6.
  • Abolhosseini, Shahrouz, et al. (författare)
  • The Main Support Mechanisms to Finance Renewable Energy Development
  • 2014
  • Rapport (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • Considering that the major part of greenhouse gases is carbon dioxide, there is a global concern aimed at reducing carbon emissions. Additionally, major consumer countries are looking for alternative sources of energy to avoid the impact of higher fossil fuel prices and political instability in the major energy supplying countries. In this regard, different policies could be applied to reduce carbon emissions, such as enhancing renewable energy deployment and encouraging technological innovation and creation of green jobs. There are three main support mechanisms employed by governments to finance renewable energy development programs: feed-in-tariffs, tax incentives, and tradable green certificates. Considering that many of the promising technologies to deploy renewable energy require investment in small-scale energy production systems, these mechanisms could be used to enhance renewable energy development at the desired scale. Employing a carbon emission tax or emission trading mechanism could be considered ideal policies to mitigate emissions at the lowest cost. The comparison of feed-in-tariffs and renewable portfolio standard policies showed that the former is good when a policy to develop renewable energy sources with a low level of risk for investors is considered. However, the latter is an appropriate policy when a marketview policy is applied by the government.
7.
  • Al-Athwari, Baseem, et al. (författare)
  • A Conceptual Model and Methodology for Evaluating E-Infrastructure Deployment and Its Application to OECD and MENA Countries
  • 2013
  • Rapport (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • As information and communication technologies have spread throughout the world, countries have realized the importance of investing more and more in building ICT-relevant infrastructure. However, for fostering further information and communication technology (ICT) development, countries are in need of an analysis tool for measuring their advancement in ICT-relevant infrastructure. Motivated by a variety of attempts to generate measures of ICT development, this study aims to develop an index that quantifies the level of ICT-relevant (e-infrastructure) deployment. In particular, this study introduces two e-infrastructure indices that are composed of six components, namely electricity, telecommunication, Internet, processing power, broadcasting, and human capital. Each component is generated from one or more indicators. This composition provides the possibility of tracking each of them separately and to identify strengths and weaknesses of each country with respect to the ICT-relevant area of the component. It will also help pointing out the source of failure in developing the ICT-related infrastructure and to develop policies for enhancing ICT-related infrastructure accordingly. For the index computation, the study uses a parametric and a non-parametric computation method rather than the traditional approaches which are frequently used in literature. In addition to this, this study also aims at analyzing the indices ranking differences among OECD countries and Middle East & North Africa (MENA) countries, using data for the time period between 2000 and 2007. The ranking of the countries shows that MENA and OECD countries differ significantly in their e-infrastructure development. However, a small group of MENA countries are ranked higher than a few OECD countries. Those countries belong to the Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC).
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8.
  • Al-Hammadany, Firas H., et al. (författare)
  • Analysis of the Purpose of Using Internet in Iraq: A Multinomial Logit Model
  • 2011
  • Ingår i: Journal of Knowledge Management, Economics and Information Technology. - 2069-5934. ; 1:6, s. 1-39
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Internet accessibility is positively correlated with infrastructure development and nature of government policies. Though Iraq has shown considerable increase in Internet connectivity, it constitutes only 10 % of its population. In this study, the significant factors determining the use and non-use of Internet have been identified and analyzed. The results revealed that human development, human capital, institutional and legal environment, existing technologies, government policy making and income levels affect the Internet accessibility. The non-Internet users mainly comprised from 12-25 years age group. Similarly, high school and diploma students constituted significant proportion ofnon-Internet users. Lack of awareness and poor access to Internet facility were quoted as the most significant factors that resulted in the poor Internet accessibility which were supported by the used multinomial logit model. Low income level of the people resulted in non-use of Internet. The use of Internet was found to be highest among those with high level of education. Hence, the measures like provision of ICT based training programs, effective government policy for prioritizing Internet in education sector and allowing most advanced Internet technologies in e-governance and increased efforts for enhancing human development and human capital would enhance the rate of Internet accessibility in Iraq.
9.
  • Al-Hammadany, Firas H., et al. (författare)
  • Determinants of Internet Use in Iraq
  • 2009
  • Rapport (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • The Internet is considered to be today's most advanced technology and a key to progress of communication and exchange of information, goods, services and technologies. Since its introduction during the late 1960s, the Internet has led to the creation of opportunities and conditions of development both for the developed and developing nations around the globe. Not all nations though welcome this particular tool of world connection. Iraq is facing huge challenges in increasing Internet penetration and usage and changing the traditional way of communication. However, this is a difficult task as there are many factors that define this transition process. This issue and more shall be better presented in this study. Through the use of a suitable approach, this study aims to explain the determinants of Internet use in Iraq. The results indicate that while the people of Iraq are eager to adopt this technology in order to reach out to the world, a number of factors like lack of adequate resources, insufficient incentives and encouragement from the government and some social inhibitions are not allowing this technology to become a public domain.
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10.
  • Al-Hammadany, F. H., et al. (författare)
  • Determinants of internet use in Iraq
  • 2011
  • Ingår i: International Journal of Communication. - 1932-8036. ; 5:1, s. 1967-1989
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The Internet is considered to be today’s most advanced technology and a key to progress in communications and in the exchange of information, goods, services, and technologies. Since its introduction during the late 1960s, the Internet has been instrumental in creating opportunities and conditions for progress in developed and developing nations alike. Not all nations, though, welcome this particular tool of global interconnectivity. One such nation is Iraq, which faces huge challenges in increasing Internet penetration, capacity building, and changing the traditional methods of communications. This study of Iraq’s efforts during this difficult undertaking explores the many factors that define this transition process. It concludes by explaining the determinants of Internet use in Iraq. The results of the study indicate that while Iraqis are eager to adopt this technology in order to reach out to the world, a number of factors are not allowing it to become a public domain. Factors include lack of adequate resources, insufficient incentives and encouragement from the government, and social inhibitions. ©2011 (Firas H. al-Hammadany, Almas Heshmati).
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