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Sökning: hsv:(SAMHÄLLSVETENSKAP) > Andersson Gerhard

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  • Andersson, Gerhard, 1966-, et al. (författare)
  • Cognitive bias via the Internet : A comparison of web-based and standard emotional Stroop tasks in social phobia
  • 2006
  • Ingår i: Cognitive Behaviour Therapy. - 1650-6073. ; 35:1, s. 55-62
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • There is accumulating evidence to suggest that social phobia is associated with attentional bias for words related to social threat. Information processing in individuals with social phobia (n = 87) was investigated in the present study using 2 versions of the emotional Stroop task. Results from a standard emotional Stroop task indicated delayed colour naming of socially threatening words relative to neutral words, in line with previous research, whereas results from a Web-based emotional Stroop task indicated a facilitation effect, with faster manual indication of colour choice for socially threatening words than for neutral words. Possible explanations for these contrasting findings and issues for further research are discussed. © 2006 Taylor & Francis.
  • Andersson, Gerhard, et al. (författare)
  • Stroop facilitation in tinnitus patients: : an experiment conducted via the world wide web
  • 2005
  • Ingår i: Cyberpsychology and behavior. ; 8:1, s. 32-38
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Cognitive mechanisms have been proposed to play an important role in tinnitus. In the present study, tinnitus participants were administered an emotional Stroop test via the Internet, incorporating words related to tinnitus concerns. In line with previous research using this Web-based version of the emotional Stroop test, faster colour naming was demonstrated for concern-relevant words relative to neutral words. The present results thus provided supported for a role of cognitive factors that are important for the understanding of tinnitus. However, future research is warranted in order to clarify the precise mechanisms involved in tinnitus-related Stroop effects.
  • Johansson, Linda, et al. (författare)
  • Attentional bias for negative self-words in young women The role of thin ideal priming and body shape dissatisfaction
  • 2005
  • Ingår i: Personality and Individual Differences. - Elsevier. - 1873-3549. ; 38:3, s. 723-733
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Previous research suggests that body dissatisfied women are particularly susceptible to negative affect following exposure to thin media images, whereas body satisfied women may even respond positively to such images. It was thus hypothesised that negative self-referent information would be more accessible in body dissatisfied women than in women satisfied with their bodies after viewing thin ideal images. Such activation of negative self-schemata was expected to be reflected through delayed colour-naming of negative self-referent words on the emotional Stroop task. Eighty-seven young women were randomised either to a thin ideal priming condition or a neutral priming condition, before undergoing an emotional Stroop task with performance-related and interpersonal-related threat words. There was a significant interaction between body dissatisfaction and thin ideal priming on attentional bias for performance words. This effect was most clearly seen in the body satisfied group, who were faster to colour-name performance words after priming. Further, this group showed an increase in self-esteem after testing. These findings may suggest that body satisfied women responded positively to thin ideal images. Alternatively, the facilitation effect of negative performance words may have been indicative of strategic avoidant processing serving to protect against negative impact of thin ideal exposure.
  • Johansson, Linda, et al. (författare)
  • Stroop interference for food- and body-related words : A meta-analysis
  • 2005
  • Ingår i: Eating Behaviors. - 1471-0153. ; 6:3, s. 271-281
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • According to cognitive theories of eating disorders, biased information processing in favour of dysfunctional attitudes about food and body appearance plays a vital role in the development and maintenance of such disorders. Data from 27 studies evaluating Stroop interference for food- and body-related words with negative overtones were included in a meta-analysis in order to investigate whether such processing biases are specific to eating disordered samples. Participants were females characterised as eating disordered, non-eating disordered but nevertheless over-concerned with body appearance and eating, and normal controls. Mean Stroop interference for eating disordered females was of medium effect size (Cohen's d=0.48) and significantly larger than for both non-eating disordered females concerned with body appearance and eating, and normal control females (both d=0.21). Stroop interference for eating disordered females was thus of fairly modest magnitude where it was unclear whether such interference is specific to this sample. © 2004 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
  • Johansson, Linda, et al. (författare)
  • The role of sensitivity to external food cues in attentional allocation to food words on dot probe and Stroop tasks
  • 2004
  • Ingår i: Eating Behaviors. - 1471-0153. ; 58, s. 261-271
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The role of sensitivity of external food cues in producing attentional bias toward food-, body-weight-, and shape-related words on the Stroop and the dot probe tasks was examined. Contrary to expectations, individuals high in responsiveness to external food cues directed attention away from food words, whereas individuals low in responsiveness to external food cues directed their attention toward food words on the dot probe task. No significant differences were found between the groups high and low in sensitivity to external food cues for body words on the dot probe task or for food or body words on the Stroop task. Results are discussed with reference to theoretical views of differences between the Stroop and the dot probe tasks.
  • Jasper, Kristine, et al. (författare)
  • The working alliance in a randomized controlled trial comparing Internet-based self-help and face-to-face cognitive behavior therapy for chronic tinnitus
  • 2014
  • Ingår i: Internet Interventions. - Elsevier. - 2214-7829. ; 1:2, s. 49-57
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • ObjectiveThis study (ID: NCT01205906) compared the impact of the working alliance between the therapist and the client on treatment outcome in a group and an Internet-based cognitive behavior therapy (GCBT vs. ICBT) for chronic tinnitus.MethodsThe Working Alliance Inventory — Short Revised (WAI-SR, scale range: 1–5) was administered to 26 GCBT and 38 ICBT participants after treatment weeks 2, 5, and 9, and the Tinnitus Handicap Inventory (THI) before and after the treatment.ResultsHigh alliance ratings were found in both ICBT (WAI-SR total scores at week 9: M = 3.59, SD = 0.72) and GCBT (WAI-SR total scores at week 9: M = 4.20, SD = 0.49), but significantly higher ratings occurred in GCBT on most WAI-SR scales (ps < .01). Significant time × group interactions for most WAI-SR scales indicated differences in alliance growth patterns between the treatments (ps < .001). Residual gain scores for the therapy outcome measure ‘tinnitus distress’ were significantly correlated with the agreement on treatment tasks between therapist and client in ICBT (r = .40, p = .014) and with the affective therapeutic bond in GCBT (r = .40, p = .043) at mid-treatment (week 5).ConclusionMore time was needed to build a strong alliance in ICBT although GCBT yielded generally higher alliance ratings. Moreover, different aspects of the therapeutic alliance might be important for treatment success in ICBT versus GCBT.
  • Alfonsson, Sven, et al. (författare)
  • The effects of clinical supervision on supervisees and patients in cognitive-behavioral therapy a study protocol for a systematic review.
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: Systematic Reviews. ; 6:1
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BACKGROUND: Clinical supervision by a senior therapist is a very common practice in psychotherapist training and psychiatric care settings. Though clinical supervision is advocated by most educational and governing institutions, the effects of clinical supervision on the supervisees' competence, e.g., attitudes, behaviors, and skills, as well as on treatment outcomes and other patient variables are debated and largely unknown. Evidence-based practice is advocated in clinical settings but has not yet been fully implemented in educational or clinical training settings. The aim of this systematic review is to synthesize and present the empirical literature regarding effects of clinical supervision in cognitive-behavioral therapy.METHODS: This study will include a systematic review of the literature to identify studies that have empirically investigated the effects of supervision on supervised psychotherapists and/or the supervisees' patients. A comprehensive search strategy will be conducted to identify published controlled studies indexed in the MEDLINE, EMBASE, PsycINFO, and Cochrane Library databases. Data on supervision outcomes in both psychotherapists and their patients will be extracted, synthesized, and reported. Risk of bias and quality of the included studies will be assessed systematically.DISCUSSION: This systematic review will rigorously follow established guidelines for systematic reviews in order to summarize and present the evidence base for clinical supervision in cognitive-behavioral therapy and may aid further research and discussion in this area.SYSTEMATIC REVIEW REGISTRATION: PROSPERO CRD42016046834.
  • Alfonsson, Sven, et al. (författare)
  • The effects of clinical supervision on supervisees and patients in cognitive behavioral therapy: a systematic review
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: Cognitive Behaviour Therapy. - ROUTLEDGE JOURNALS, TAYLOR & FRANCIS LTD. - 1650-6073. ; 47:3, s. 206-228
  • Forskningsöversikt (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • Clinical supervision is a central part of psychotherapist training but the empirical support for specific supervision theories or features is unclear. The aims of this study were to systematically review the empirical research literature regarding the effects of clinical supervision on therapists competences and clinical outcomes within Cognitive Behavior Therapy (CBT). A comprehensive database search resulted in 4103 identified publications. Of these, 133 were scrutinized and in the end 5 studies were included in the review for data synthesis. The five studies were heterogeneous in scope and quality and only one provided firm empirical support for the positive effects of clinical supervision on therapists competence. The remaining four studies suffered from methodological weaknesses, but provided some preliminary support that clinical supervision may be beneficiary for novice therapists. No study could show benefits from supervision for patients. The research literature suggests that clinical supervision may have some potential effects on novice therapists competence compared to no supervision but the effects on clinical outcomes are still unclear. While bug-in-the-eye live supervision may be more effective than standard delayed supervision, the effects of specific supervision models or features are also unclear. There is a continued need for high-quality empirical studies on the effects of clinical supervision in psychotherapy.
  • Anderson, G, et al. (författare)
  • Psychological treatment as an umbrella term for evidence-based psychotherapies?
  • 2009
  • Ingår i: Nordic Psychology. - DANSK PSYKOLOGISK FORLAG-DANISH PSYCHOLOGICAL PUBLISHERS. - 1901-2276. ; 61:2
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The purpose of this review paper is to comment on a suggestion proposed by David Barlow [Barlow, D. H. (2004). Psychological treatments. American Psychologist, 59, 869-878.], that evidence-based psychotherapies with a clear medical objective should go under the name of "psychological treatments". We begin by describing the definition of psychotherapy and the role of common factors. We then briefly present how different "schools of psychotherapy" are differentiated. In the literature it is clear that psychological treatments can be both more broad in terms of the ways of delivery (e. g., Internet-based treatment), but also more narrow than psychotherapies, as psychological treatments are now increasingly regarded as evidence-based medical treatments for specific medical conditions. Psychological treatments are also increasingly recommended in treatment guidelines. Some benefits from using the concept of psychological treatment instead of the equally important but less medically oriented term psychotherapy are presented. As the regular "brand names" of psychotherapy are increasingly integrating procedures from different schools of therapy, and that the objective of psychotherapy often is adjustment and growth, we agree with the suggestion by Barlow that endorsing the term "psychological treatment" could facilitate the further dissemination of evidence-based psychological treatment procedures.
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