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Sökning: hsv:(SAMHÄLLSVETENSKAP) > Lunds universitet

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1.
  • Hallonsten, Olof (författare)
  • How expensive is Big Science? Consequences of using simple publication counts in performance assessment of large scientific facilities
  • 2014
  • Ingår i: Scientometrics. - 0138-9130. ; 100:2, s. 483-496.
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Although the nuclear era and the Cold War superpower competition have long since passed, governments are still investing in Big Science, although these large facilities are nowadays mostly geared towards areas of use closer to utility. Investments in Big Science are also motivated not only by promises of scientific breakthroughs but also by expectations (and demands) of measurable impact, and with an emerging global market of competing user-oriented Big Science facilities, quantitative measures of productivity and quality have become mainstream. Among these are rather simple and one-sided publication counts. This article uses publication counts and figures of expenditure for three cases that are disparate but all represent the state-of-the-art of Big Science of their times, discussing at depth the problems of using simple publication counts as a measure of performance in science. Showing, quite trivially, that Big Science is very expensive, the article also shows the absurd consequences of consistently using simple publication counts to display productivity and quality of Big Science, and concludes that such measures should be deemed irrelevant for analyses on the level of organizations in science and replaced by qualitative assessment of the content of the science produced.
2.
  • Klinthäll, Martin, 1967- (författare)
  • Retirement Return Migration from Sweden
  • 2006
  • Ingår i: International migration (Geneva. Print). - Oxford : Blackwell Publishing. - 0020-7985. ; 44:2, s. 153-180
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Abstract in Spanish Este estudio aborda el movimiento de retorno entre los inmigrantes establecidos en Suecia y que tienen entre 51 y 80 años de edad. Una cuestión importante se refiere a la repercusión de la jubilación en la migración de retorno. Algunas circunstancias vinculadas con el abandono del mercado laboral sugieren una mayor tendencia al retorno, por ejemplo la transición del cobro de un salario al de una pensión, que debilita el vínculo entre el lugar de residencia y los ingresos. Además, los patrones de la migración de retorno al final de la vida laboral pueden indicar si la migración temporal es o no una estrategia planificada. Se observa que, al alcanzar los 65 años, la edad de jubilación que marca la ley en Suecia, la probabilidad de una migración de retorno aumenta, en especial entre los hombres. El efecto de la jubilación es inmediato; la probabilidad de una migración de retorno declina de nuevo más allá de los 65 años, lo que indica un plan consciente de regresar al país de origen cuando finaliza la carrera en el Mercado laboral. Además, los inmigrantes que reciben una indemnización por jubilación anticipada tienen una probabilidad muy superior de regresar en comparación con los que no están jubilados. Estos claros "efectos de la jubilación" muestran que la migración de retorno puede ser un ingrediente importante en las estrategias de optimización del bienestar de los migrantes. Cuando se trata de una selección basada en la renta, el análisis muestra que la selección es positiva, algo esperable cuando los migrantes son ahorradores con un propósito concreto y una estrategia de migración temporal. Abstract in French Cette étude porte sur la migration de retour des immigrés âgés de 51 à 80 ans en Suède. L'incidence de la retraite sur la migration de retour constitue une question importante. Certaines circonstances liées au retrait du marché du travail indiquent une tendance à rentrer, notamment le passage d'un revenu salarial à une pension de retraite, qui affaiblit le lien entre lieu de résidence et revenu. Par ailleurs, la structure de la migration de retour à la fin de la vie active pourrait indiquer si la migration temporaire est oui on non une stratégie planifiée. Nous constatons qu'à l'âge de 65 ans, âge légal de la retraite en Suède, la probabilité d'une migration de retour s'accroît, en particulier chez les hommes. L'effet de la retraite est immédiat. La probabilité d'une migration de retour diminue de nouveau audelà de 65 ans, ce qui montre qu'il y a un véritable projet de rentrer dans le pays d'origine une fois terminée la vie professionnelle. En outre, la probabilité d'une migration de retour est beaucoup plus élevée chez les immigrés qui reçoivent une allocation de retraite anticipée que chez ceux qui ne sont pas retraités. Ces effets évidents de la retraite montrent que la migration de retour peut être un élément important dans les stratégies d'optimisation de la sécurité sociale des migrants. Pour ce qui est de la sélectivité par le revenu, l'analyse montre l'existence d'une sélection positive, ce à quoi l'on peut s'attendre quand les migrants épargnent en fonction d'un objectif et ont une stratégie de migration temporaire.
3.
  • Gender issues in learning and working with information technology: social constructs and cultural contexts
  • 2010
  • Samlingsverk (redaktörskap) (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • Gender Differences in Learning and Working with Technology: Social Constructs and Cultural Contexts discusses the social studies of information technology, specifically how IT skills are learned and how such skills are gendered. This book draws upon the disciplines of sociology, education, cultural and media studies, and gender studies, using a variety of research methods and theoretical perspectives to approach gender and IT in different contexts: education settings, work settings and everyday life. This unique reference source brings to light gender relations and IT, examining them in a multidimensional way. Gender, equity, learning, and information technology can intersect to form a theoretical and abstract field of knowledge emanating from very real, concrete, lived experiences.
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4.
  • Bergmark, Magnus, 1975-, et al. (författare)
  • Policy Changes in Community Mental Health: Interventions and Strategies Used in Sweden over 20 Years
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: Social Policy & Administration. - John Wiley & Sons. - 1467-9515. ; 51:1, s. 95-113
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The deinstitutionalization of mental health care has changed the responsibilities of involved authoritiesand has led to a continuous need for new treatment forms and interventions. This articledescribes this development in Europe, and in particular how these new conditions have been handledin Sweden over the past 20 years at the level of governmental policy-making. Three major policydocuments from 1994, 2009 and 2012 were included in this study. To increase our understandingof the policies’ contents, we have used theoretical concepts concerning governance,implementation and political risk management. Although our main interest was to find out howthe government handles interventions for users of the mental health care system, we found that thepolicy work is progressing stepwise. The first document, from the deinstitutionalization era, did notdiscuss interventions clearly. Instead, it was mainly concerned with both practical and economicalareas of responsibility. The second document, from the post-deinstitutionalization era, was morefocused on what services should be delivered to the users, while the most recently published documentto a greater extent addressed the question of how the support is supposed to be designed. The trendin European community mental health policy has been to advocate services in open forms that areintegrated into the society’s other care systems. This is also the case in Sweden, and continuous workis being done by the government to find strategies to support the development, and to meet the needs atboth political and local levels.
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5.
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6.
  • Gössling, Stefan (författare)
  • Tourism, information technologies and sustainability : an exploratory review
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: Journal of Sustainable Tourism. - Taylor & Francis. - 0966-9582. ; 25:7, s. 1024-1041
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Considerable attention has been paid in recent years to the fundamental changes in the global tourism system related to the emergence of information technologies (IT), and, specifically, the rise of social media. Opportunities to search travel-related information, to reserve and book, evaluate and judge; to receive travel advice and to communicate one's mobility patterns have all profoundly changed the practices of performing tourism, with concomitant repercussions for the management and marketing of businesses and destinations. This paper provides a discussion of the implications of these changes for the sustainability of the global tourism system. Based on an exploratory research design, key changes in the tourism system are identified and discussed with regard to their environmental, socio-cultural and psychological, as well as economic significance. The paper concludes that IT affects the tourism system in numerous and complex ways, with mixed outcomes for sustainability: while most changes would currently appear to be ambivalent – and some outright negative – there is considerable potential for IT to support more sustainable tourism. Yet, this would require considerable changes in the tourism system on global, national and individual business' levels, and require tourism academics to probe many new issues.
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7.
  • Hagerall, Carolin, et al. (författare)
  • Human physiological benefits of viewing nature: EEG responses to exact and statistical fractal patterns.
  • 2015
  • Ingår i: Nonlinear Dynamics, Psychology, and Life Sciences. - Society for Chaos Theory in Psychology & Life Sciences. - 1090-0578. ; 19:1, s. 1-12
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Psychological and physiological benefits of viewing nature have been extensively studied for some time. More recently it has been suggested that some of these positive effects can be explained by nature's fractal properties. Virtually all studies on human responses to fractals have used stimuli that represent the specific form of fractal geometry found in nature, i.e. statistical fractals, as opposed to fractal patterns which repeat exactly at different scales. This raises the question of whether human responses like preference and relaxation are being driven by fractal geometry in general or by the specific form of fractal geometry found in nature. In this study we consider both types of fractals (statistical and exact) and morph one type into the other. Based on the Koch curve, nine visual stimuli were produced in which curves of three different fractal dimensions evolve gradually from an exact to a statistical fractal. The patterns were shown for one minute each to thirty-five subjects while qEEG was continuously recorded. The results showed that the responses to statistical and exact fractals differ, and that the natural form of the fractal is important for inducing alpha responses, an indicator of a wakefully relaxed state and internalized attention.
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8.
  • Perez Vico, Eugenia, 1980-, et al. (författare)
  • Bredda synen på nyttiggörande!
  • 2013
  • Ingår i: Forskning. ; 3, s. 12-12
  • Tidskriftsartikel (populärvet., debatt m.m.)
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9.
10.
  • Brunnberg, Elinor, et al. (författare)
  • Tinnitus and hearing loss in 15-16-year-old students : mental health symptoms, substance use, and exposure in school
  • 2008
  • Ingår i: International Journal of Audiology. - 1499-2027. ; 47:11, s. 688-694
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The current study assessed the responses from a survey titled ”Life and Health – Young People 2005”, completed by 2.878 15-16 year-old adolescents in mainstream schools in the county of Örebro, Sweden. Thirty-nine percent of students with hearing loss (slight, mild, or moderate) and 6% of students with normal hearing reported tinnitus often or always during the past three months. Almost no gender difference was observed among students with normal hearing reporting tinnitus (boys 6.3%, girls 5.6%); however, a gender difference was noticed among hard-of-hearing (HH) students (boys 50%, girls 28%). Adolescents with both hearing loss and tinnitus reported considerably higher scores for mental symptoms, substance use, and school problems than other students. Anxiety in the past three months, male gender, and alcohol consumption in the past year were associated with tinnitus in HH students; irritation and anxiety in the past three months, disability, use of illicit drugs, and truancy predicted tinnitus in the normal hearing group. Consequently, students with a hearing loss and tinnitus are at high risk and should be monitored for subsequent problems.
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