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Sökning: hsv:(SAMHÄLLSVETENSKAP) > Karolinska Institutet

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1.
  • Morberg, Siv, et al. (författare)
  • The perceived perceptions of head school nurses in developing school nursing roles in schools
  • 2009
  • Ingår i: International Journal of Nursing Management. - 1365-2834. ; 17:7, s. 813-821
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Aim: To gain a deeper understanding of how Swedish head school nurses perceive their leadership in developing school health care. Background: A well-functioning school health care is important for promoting the health of children and young people. Method: Constructivist-grounded theory was used to analyse 11 individual interviews with nine head school nurses. Results Head school nurses strive to find a balance between what they experience as vague formal goals and strong informal goals which leads to creating local goals in order to develop school health care. Conclusion: The head school nurse's job is experienced as a divided and pioneering job in which there is uncertainty about the leadership role. They provide individual support to school nurses, are the link between school nurses and decision makers and highlight the importance of school nurses' work to organizational leaders. Implications for nursing management This study shows that school health care needs to be founded on evidence-based methods. Therefore, a structured plan for education and training in school health care management, based on research and in cooperation with the academic world, would develop the head school nurses' profession, strengthen the position of school health care and advance the school nurses' work.
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2.
  • Nilsson, AS, et al. (författare)
  • Transfer of Academic Research - Uncovering the Grey Zone
  • 2010
  • Ingår i: Journal of Technology Transfer. - Springer. - 0892-9912. ; 35:6, s. 617-636
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • In this study, we respond to calls for further investigation on why and how scientists choose to commercialize their research. Mowery (University entrepreneurship and technology transfer: process design, and intellectual property, Elsevier, Oxford 2005), in his criticism of the US-system, emphasizes the need for multiple channels between university and industry. His argument makes the case of Sweden interesting, where the researchers own the intellectual property of their research. Sweden thus constitutes a unique case where data can be found on which choices researchers make in a setting where a variety of channels for transfer are available. Our empirical data, collected through case studies, allowed for the expansion of the typology for mechanisms for transfer of academic research as well as the development of a typology for determinants for researchers' choice to engage in transfer of research. Apart from those contributions to the theoretic discussion, the data also provided policy implications.
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3.
  • Olsson, TM, et al. (författare)
  • Research that Guides Practice: Outcome Research in Swedish PhD Theses Across Seven Disciplines 1997-2012.
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: Prevention Science. - Springer. - 1573-6695.
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The core of evidence-based practice (EBP) as advocated for within the practice arms of the health and social sciences is to promote the routine incorporation of the best available research evidence into practice efforts. This requires discipline-specific education that is not only grounded in professional practice but also prepares would-be scientists in the application of the sophisticated techniques that characterize today's high research standards. Doctoral-level education is an important primer for future scientific endeavors across disciplines. This study examined 2334 theses published across Sweden in public health, criminology, nursing, psychiatry, psychology, social work, and sociology during the period 1997-2012. Of the theses reviewed, 13 % aimed to investigate the effects of interventions. The highest percentage of effectiveness studies was found in nursing, public health, and psychology. The percentage of outcome research increased during the period. Controlled studies (with comparison group and pre- and post-test) occurred primarily within public health, nursing, psychiatry, and psychology. Of the 296 theses that included an intervention effectiveness study, 131 (44 %), or 5.6 % of all theses reviewed, met all four assessment criteria for quality. PhD education across seven disciplines in Sweden may be producing a professional core of scientists that is ill prepared to produce the type of research that is necessary to inform practice of the effects of its interventions as exposure to the rigors of quality effectiveness research is all but non-existent. This has implications for the advancement of an evidence-based practice and intervention science more broadly.
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4.
  • Abrahamsson, Jonas, et al. (författare)
  • Response-guided induction therapy in pediatric acute myeloid leukemia with excellent remission rate.
  • 2011
  • Ingår i: Journal of clinical oncology : official journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology. - 1527-7755. ; 29:3, s. 310-5
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • PurposeTo evaluate the early treatment response in children with acute myeloid leukemia (AML) using a response-guided induction strategy that includes idarubicin in the first course.Patients and MethodsAll Nordic children with AML younger than 15 years (n = 151) were treated on the Nordic Society for Pediatric Hematology and Oncology (NOPHO) AML 2004 protocol. After the first course of idarubicin, cytarabine, etoposide, and 6-thioguanin, patients with good response were allowed hematologic recovery before the second course, whereas patients with a poor (>= 15% blasts) or intermediate (5% to 14.9% blasts) were recommended to proceed immediately with therapy. Patients not in remission after the second course received fludarabine, cytarabine, and granulocyte colony-stimulating factor. Poor responders received allogeneic stem-cell transplantation (SCT) as consolidation.ResultsSeventy-four percent of patients had good response, 17% had intermediate response, and 7% had poor response after the first course. The overall remission frequency was 97.4%, with 92% in remission after the second course. The rate of induction death was 1.3%. Patients with an intermediate response had a lower event-free survival of 35% compared with good (61%) and poor responders (82%).ConclusionThe NOPHO-AML 2004 induction strategy gives an excellent remission rate with low toxic mortality in an unselected population. Outcome is worse in patients with intermediate response but may be improved by intensifying consolidation in this group using SCT.
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5.
  • Agahi, N, et al. (författare)
  • Continuity of leisure participation from middle age to old age
  • 2006
  • Ingår i: Journals of Gerontology. Series B: Psychological Sciences & Social Sciences. - Gerontologial Society of America. - 1079-5014. ; 61:6, s. 340-346
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Objectives. Continuity in habits, activities, and roles is important upon entering old age according to the continuity theory of aging. Few studies have investigated patterns of leisure participation over an extended period of time among older adults. This study examines changes in nine different leisure activities in a nationally representative sample of individuals followed over a 34-year period in Sweden. Methods. We used longitudinal data from three waves of an interview survey that followed 495 individuals from 1968 to 2002. Individuals were aged 43-65 in 1968 and 77-99 in 2002. We conducted logistic regression analyses on each of the leisure activities. Results. For the panel followed, a decline in participation rates was the most common pattern over time. Analyses at the individual level showed that late-life participation was generally preceded by participation earlier in life. Previous participation, both 10 and 34 years earlier, predicted late-life participation. The modifying effect of functional status in late life was small. Discussion. In accordance with the continuity theory of aging. leisure participation in old age is often a continuation of previous participation. However, there is considerable variation among both activities and individuals.
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6.
  • Almstahl, A, et al. (författare)
  • A prospective study on oral microbial flora and related variables in dentate dependent elderly residents.
  • 2012
  • Ingår i: Gerodontology. - 1741-2358. ; 29:2
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Gerodontology 2011; doi: 10.1111/j.1741-2358.2011.00599.x A prospective study on oral microbial flora and related variables in dentate dependent elderly residents Objective:  Oral microorganisms and related variables were followed over a 1-year period in dentate dependent elderly. Background:  For nursing personnel, oral hygiene for the dependent elderly is demanding. It requires good knowledge of how to carry out preventive oral health measures and to judge when help is needed. Previous studies indicate low levels of knowledge, which might be reflected in the oral health of dentate residents. Material and methods:  Twenty-one subjects participated at baseline and 14 one year later. Microbial samples were analysed using cultivation technique. The labial minor gland secretion rate was measured using the Periotron(®) method, and oral clinical data were registered. Results:  Low labial mucosal flow rates were seen for 95% of the participants. At baseline, visibly thick plaque was seen in 48% and 1 year later in 57%. Both frequency and number of bacteria associated with caries and frequency of microorganisms associated with oral soft tissue infections were high. One year later, a decrease in bacteria associated with good oral health and a tendency to an increase in aciduric microorganisms were seen. Conclusion:  Poor oral health, tending to further deteriorate over time, advocates regular professional supplementary support when elderly dentate dependent residents need assistance with their oral care.
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7.
  • Anclair, M, et al. (författare)
  • Parental fears following their child's brain tumor diagnosis and treatment.
  • 2009
  • Ingår i: Journal of pediatric oncology nursing : official journal of the Association of Pediatric Oncology Nurses. - 1043-4542. ; 26:2, s. 68-74
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The objective of this study is to portray the illness-related threats experienced by parents of children after the diagnosis of central nervous system (CNS) tumor. Parents were asked to rate the extent to which they experienced a set of specific fears related to their child's brain tumor and its treatment. Outcomes for parents of CNS tumor patients (n = 82) were compared with those of reference parents of patients treated for acute lymphoblastic leukemia (n = 208). The fears about an illness recurrence and the late effects of treatment were most prominent among parents of CNS tumor patients. For 7 out of 11 kinds of fear, parents of CNS tumor patients expressed a stronger fear than the reference group. More than a quarter of the parents of children treated for CNS tumors feared a complete decline of the child. Parents of CNS tumor patients experience relatively heightened cancer related fears in several domains. The fear of devastating consequences felt by one fourth of parents signals the need of individualized psychological support and information at diagnosis and follow-up to facilitate parental coping with the posttreatment situation.
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8.
  • Anund, Anna, et al. (författare)
  • The effects of driving situation on sleepiness indicators after sleep loss : A driving simulator study
  • 2009
  • Ingår i: Industrial Health. - 0019-8366. ; 47:4, s. 393-401
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Almost all studies of sleepy driving are carried out in driving simulators and with monotonous road conditions (no interaction with other cars). The present study investigated indicators of sleepy driving in a more challenging scenario after a night awake. 17 participants drove a high fidelity moving base driving simulator experiment while sleepiness was monitored physiologically and behaviourally. Short periods of situations of free driving (no other vehicles) alternated with short periods of following another vehicle (car following) with and without the possibility to overtake. The result showed that a night of prior sleep loss increased sleepiness levels at the wheel (eye closure duration and lateral variability) compared to after a night of normal sleep. Blink duration while overtaking was significantly lower compared to the other situations, it was at the same level as after night sleep. Speed when passing a stopped school bus was not significantly affected by sleepiness. However the warning caused a more rapid reduction of speed. In conclusion, a moderately challenging driving contest did not affect sleepiness indicators, but a very challenging one did so (overtaking). This suggests that it is important to monitor the driving situation in field operational tests of sleepy driving.
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9.
  • Asplund, Ragnar (författare)
  • Sleep, health and visual impairment in the elderly
  • 2000
  • Ingår i: Archives of gerontology and geriatrics (Print). - 0167-4943. ; 30:1, s. 7-15
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • This study was undertaken in order to analyse the relationship between visual impairment and sleep in an elderly population. All 10 216 members of the pensioners' association in two Swedish counties were asked to participate in a questionnaire survey. The questionnaire included questions on civil status, the general state of health, the occurrence of somatic diseases and symptoms, sleep, medication and vision. 6143 evaluable questionnaires were received, of which 39.5% were from men. The mean (s.d.) ages of the male and female participants wc:re 73.0 (6.0) and 72.6 (6.7) years, respectively. Visual impairment was reported by 20.9% of the men and 32.9% of the women. The proportion of visual impairment increased with;Ige and was more common in women in each age group. Poor sleep occurred in 14.4% of the men and 27.9% of the women. Among subjects with visual. impairment, poor sleep, frequent awakenings and difficulties to fall asleep after awakening at night were all more common in both men and women. In a multiple logistic regression analysis, significant independent correlates of poor night's sleep among the men were: visual impairment (odds ratio (OR) 1.3 95%, confidence interval (CI) 1.0-1.8) and poor health (OR 2.2, CI 1.6-3.0). Age, circulatory organ disease and diabetes were deleted by the logistic model. The significant independent correlates in women were: visual impairment (OR 1.6, CI 1.3-2.0) poor health (OR 2.6, CI 2.1-3.3) and circulatory organ diseases (OR 1.5 CI, 1.2-1.8). Age and diabetes were deleted by the logistic model. The results suggest that visual impairment could be an underestimated cause of sleep deterioration in the elderly. (C) 2000 Elsevier Science Ireland Ltd. Al rights reserved.
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10.
  • Berglund, Kristina, et al. (författare)
  • Do men with excessive alcohol consumption and social stability have an addictive personality?
  • 2011
  • Ingår i: Scandinavian journal of psychology. - 1467-9450. ; 52:3, s. 257-60
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The existence of an "addictive" personality has been extensively debated. The current study investigated personality in male individuals with excessive alcohol consumption (n = 100) in comparison to a population-based control group (n = 131). The individuals with excessive alcohol consumption were recruited by advertisements in a regional daily newspaper and controls from a population based Swedish Twin Registry. Personality was assessed by the Karolinska Scales of Personality (KSP). Comparisons were made with normative data. Furthermore, by using a multivariate projection-based approach (Principal Component Analysis; PCA), hidden structures of traits and possible relationships among the individuals with excessive consumption and the controls was investigated. The individuals with excessive alcohol consumption as well as the controls had mean values within the normative range in all scales of the KSP. Moreover, the PCA analysis revealed no systematic between-group separation. Taken together, this result demonstrates that male individuals with excessive alcohol consumption do not have a personality different from that of a general population, which supports the notion of no "addictive personality".
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