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1.
  • Gustavsson, Anders, et al. (författare)
  • Cost of disorders of the brain in Europe 2010.
  • 2011
  • Ingår i: European Neuropsychopharmacology. - 0924-977X. ; 21:10, s. 718-79
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BACKGROUND: The spectrum of disorders of the brain is large, covering hundreds of disorders that are listed in either the mental or neurological disorder chapters of the established international diagnostic classification systems. These disorders have a high prevalence as well as short- and long-term impairments and disabilities. Therefore they are an emotional, financial and social burden to the patients, their families and their social network. In a 2005 landmark study, we estimated for the first time the annual cost of 12 major groups of disorders of the brain in Europe and gave a conservative estimate of €386 billion for the year 2004. This estimate was limited in scope and conservative due to the lack of sufficiently comprehensive epidemiological and/or economic data on several important diagnostic groups. We are now in a position to substantially improve and revise the 2004 estimates. In the present report we cover 19 major groups of disorders, 7 more than previously, of an increased range of age groups and more cost items. We therefore present much improved cost estimates. Our revised estimates also now include the new EU member states, and hence a population of 514 million people.AIMS: To estimate the number of persons with defined disorders of the brain in Europe in 2010, the total cost per person related to each disease in terms of direct and indirect costs, and an estimate of the total cost per disorder and country.METHODS: The best available estimates of the prevalence and cost per person for 19 groups of disorders of the brain (covering well over 100 specific disorders) were identified via a systematic review of the published literature. Together with the twelve disorders included in 2004, the following range of mental and neurologic groups of disorders is covered: addictive disorders, affective disorders, anxiety disorders, brain tumor, childhood and adolescent disorders (developmental disorders), dementia, eating disorders, epilepsy, mental retardation, migraine, multiple sclerosis, neuromuscular disorders, Parkinson's disease, personality disorders, psychotic disorders, sleep disorders, somatoform disorders, stroke, and traumatic brain injury. Epidemiologic panels were charged to complete the literature review for each disorder in order to estimate the 12-month prevalence, and health economic panels were charged to estimate best cost-estimates. A cost model was developed to combine the epidemiologic and economic data and estimate the total cost of each disorder in each of 30 European countries (EU27+Iceland, Norway and Switzerland). The cost model was populated with national statistics from Eurostat to adjust all costs to 2010 values, converting all local currencies to Euro, imputing costs for countries where no data were available, and aggregating country estimates to purchasing power parity adjusted estimates for the total cost of disorders of the brain in Europe 2010.RESULTS: The total cost of disorders of the brain was estimated at €798 billion in 2010. Direct costs constitute the majority of costs (37% direct healthcare costs and 23% direct non-medical costs) whereas the remaining 40% were indirect costs associated with patients' production losses. On average, the estimated cost per person with a disorder of the brain in Europe ranged between €285 for headache and €30,000 for neuromuscular disorders. The European per capita cost of disorders of the brain was €1550 on average but varied by country. The cost (in billion €PPP 2010) of the disorders of the brain included in this study was as follows: addiction: €65.7; anxiety disorders: €74.4; brain tumor: €5.2; child/adolescent disorders: €21.3; dementia: €105.2; eating disorders: €0.8; epilepsy: €13.8; headache: €43.5; mental retardation: €43.3; mood disorders: €113.4; multiple sclerosis: €14.6; neuromuscular disorders: €7.7; Parkinson's disease: €13.9; personality disorders: €27.3; psychotic disorders: €93.9; sleep disorders: €35.4; somatoform disorder: €21.2; stroke: €64.1; traumatic brain injury: €33.0. It should be noted that the revised estimate of those disorders included in the previous 2004 report constituted €477 billion, by and large confirming our previous study results after considering the inflation and population increase since 2004. Further, our results were consistent with administrative data on the health care expenditure in Europe, and comparable to previous studies on the cost of specific disorders in Europe. Our estimates were lower than comparable estimates from the US.DISCUSSION: This study was based on the best currently available data in Europe and our model enabled extrapolation to countries where no data could be found. Still, the scarcity of data is an important source of uncertainty in our estimates and may imply over- or underestimations in some disorders and countries. Even though this review included many disorders, diagnoses, age groups and cost items that were omitted in 2004, there are still remaining disorders that could not be included due to limitations in the available data. We therefore consider our estimate of the total cost of the disorders of the brain in Europe to be conservative. In terms of the health economic burden outlined in this report, disorders of the brain likely constitute the number one economic challenge for European health care, now and in the future. Data presented in this report should be considered by all stakeholder groups, including policy makers, industry and patient advocacy groups, to reconsider the current science, research and public health agenda and define a coordinated plan of action of various levels to address the associated challenges.RECOMMENDATIONS: Political action is required in light of the present high cost of disorders of the brain. Funding of brain research must be increased; care for patients with brain disorders as well as teaching at medical schools and other health related educations must be quantitatively and qualitatively improved, including psychological treatments. The current move of the pharmaceutical industry away from brain related indications must be halted and reversed. Continued research into the cost of the many disorders not included in the present study is warranted. It is essential that not only the EU but also the national governments forcefully support these initiatives.
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2.
  • Östlund, Gunnel, 1956-, et al. (författare)
  • Emotions related to participation restrictions as experienced by patients with early rheumatoid arthritis a qualitative interview study (the Swedish TIRA project)
  • 2014
  • Ingår i: Clinical Rheumatology. - Springer. - 0770-3198. ; 33:10, s. 1403-1413
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Psychological distress is a well-known complication in rheumatoid arthritis (RA), but knowledge regarding emotions and their relationship to participation restrictions is scarce. The objective of the study was to explore emotions related to participation restrictions by patients with early RA. In this study, 48 patients with early RA, aged 20-63 years, were interviewed about participation restrictions using the critical incident technique. Information from transcribed interviews was converted into dilemmas and linked to International Classification of Functioning, Disability, and Health (ICF) participation codes. The emotions described were condensed and categorized. Hopelessness and sadness were described when trying to perform daily activities such as getting up in the mornings and getting dressed, or not being able to perform duties at work. Sadness was experienced in relation to not being able to continue leisure activities or care for children. Examples of fear descriptions were found in relation to deteriorating health and fumble fear, which made the individual withdraw from activities as a result of mistrusting the body. Anger and irritation were described in relation to domestic and employed work but also in social relations where the individual felt unable to continue valued activities. Shame or embarrassment was described when participation restrictions became visible in public. Feelings of grief, aggressiveness, fear, and shame are emotions closely related to participation restrictions in everyday life in early RA. Emotions related to disability need to be addressed both in clinical settings in order to optimize rehabilitative multi-professional interventions and in research to achieve further knowledge.
3.
  • Hodgins, S., et al. (författare)
  • Individuals developing schizophrenia are hidden among adolescent substance misusers
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: Psychological Medicine. - 0033-2917. ; 46:14, s. 3041-3050
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background Strategies are needed to identify youth developing schizophrenia. The present study aimed to determine whether adolescents treated for substance misuse were at elevated risk to develop schizophrenia, whether this risk has changed since the late 1960s, and whether substance misuse in adolescence predicted poorer outcomes through adulthood. Method In a Swedish city, since the mid-1960s there has been only one clinic for adolescent substance misuse. Three samples from this clinic were studied: 1992 individuals treated from 1968 to 1971 followed to age 50 years; 1576 treated from 1980 to 1984 followed to age 35 years; and 180 treated in 2004 followed to age 22 years. Each clinical sample was matched on age, sex and place of birth to an equal, or larger, number of randomly selected individuals from the general population. Schizophrenia, substance use disorders, physical disorders related to substance misuse, criminal convictions, poverty and death were identified using national registers. Results Individuals treated for substance misuse in adolescence were at increased risk to subsequently develop schizophrenia: in males the increase was approximately four-fold and in females between five- and seven-fold. There was no difference in risk for those treated in 1968-1971 and from 1980 to 1984 when cannabis use increased from 37.6% to 49.8% of the clinical samples. Among males who developed schizophrenia, treatment for substance misuse was associated with increased risk of substance use disorders and criminal convictions through adulthood. Conclusions Treatment programmes for adolescents misusing substances include a disproportionate number developing schizophrenia. Early detection and treatment have the potential to improve long-term outcomes.
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4.
  • Thörn, Ingrid, et al. (författare)
  • Minimal residual disease assessment in childhood acute lymphoblastic leukaemia: a Swedish multi-centre study comparing real-time polymerase chain reaction and multicolour flow cytometry.
  • 2011
  • Ingår i: British Journal of Haematology. - Federation of European Neuroscience Societies and Blackwell Publishing Ltd. - 0007-1048. ; 152:6, s. 743-753
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Minimal residual disease (MRD) assessment is a powerful prognostic factor for determining the risk of relapse in childhood acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL). In this Swedish multi-centre study of childhood ALL diagnosed between 2002 and 2006, the MRD levels were analysed in 726 follow-up samples in 228 children using real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RQ-PCR) of rearranged immunoglobulin/T-cell receptor genes and multicolour flow cytometry (FCM). Using an MRD threshold of 0·1%, which was the sensitivity level reached in all analyses, the concordance between RQ-PCR and FCM MRD values at day 29 was 84%. In B-cell precursor ALL, an MRD level of ≥0·1% at day 29 predicted a higher risk of bone marrow relapse (BMR) with both methods, although FCM was a better discriminator. However, considering the higher median MRD values achieved with RQ-PCR, a higher MRD cut-off (≥0·2%) improved the predictive capacity of RQ-PCR. In T-ALL, RQ-PCR was notably superior to FCM in predicting risk of BMR. That notwithstanding, MRD levels of ≥0·1%, detected by either method at day 29, could not predict isolated extramedullary relapse. In conclusion, the concordance between RQ-PCR and FCM was high and hence both methods are valuable clinical tools for identifying childhood ALL cases with increased risk of BMR.
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5.
  • Ponsot, Elodie, 1973-, et al. (författare)
  • Skeletal muscle telomere length is not impaired in healthy physically active old women and men
  • 2008
  • Ingår i: Muscle and Nerve. - 0148-639X. ; 37:4, s. 467-472
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • We have previously shown that the number of satellite cells is lower in old than young men and women. The aim of this study was to further explore the effects of aging on the regenerative potential of skeletal muscle in 16 young and 26 old men and women with comparable physical activity level (young, 25 +/- 4 years; old, 75 +/- 4 years). Mean and minimum telomere lengths were determined using Southern blot analyses on biopsies obtained from the tibialis anterior muscle. There were no significant age or gender effects on mean and minimal telomeric lengths, suggesting that the replicative potential in the remaining satellite cells in the tibialis anterior muscle is not impaired with increasing age and the existence of in vivo regulatory mechanisms allowing the maintenance of telomere length. These results imply that moderate physical activity regularly performed by old subjects is not associated with accelerated telomere loss.
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6.
  • Eilertsen, Mary-Elizabeth Bradley, et al. (författare)
  • Impact of Social Support on Bereaved Siblings' Anxiety: A Nationwide Follow-Up
  • 2013
  • Ingår i: Journal of Pediatric Oncology Nursing. - 1043-4542. ; 30:6, s. 301-310
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Purpose:To assess adolescent and young adult siblings' perception of social support prior to and following the loss of their brother or sister to cancer, 2 to 9 years earlier, and their anxiety at follow-up. Method: In 2009, 174 (73%) bereaved siblings (12-25 years) participated in a nationwide, long-term follow-up study in Sweden using an anonymous study-specific questionnaire. The Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale was used to measure self-assessed anxiety. Results: Siblings had a higher risk of anxiety if they perceived their need for social support was unsatisfied during their brother or sisters' last month before death, relative risk (RR) = 3.6 (95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.8-7.3); time after death, RR = 2.9 (95% CI = 1.5-5.6); and at follow-up, RR = 3.8 (95% CI = 2.0-7.2). Furthermore, a higher risk for anxiety was shown for siblings if they did not perceive that their parents and neighbors cared for them after their brother or sisters' death, RR = 2.7 (95% CI = 1.3-5.5), RR = 5.4 (95% CI = 1.3-21.9), respectively. Conclusion: Bereaved siblings had a greater probability to report self-assessed anxiety if they perceived that their need for social support was not satisfied prior to and following death. Information from both nurses and other health care professionals to families about the impact of social support may contribute to lessen the siblings' risk of anxiety.
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7.
  • Lindström, Kjell, et al. (författare)
  • Can selective serotonin inhibitor drugs in elderly patients in nursing homes be reduced?
  • 2007
  • Ingår i: Scandinavian Journal of Primary Health Care. - London : Informa Healthcare. - 0281-3432. ; 25:1, s. 3-8
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether treatment with selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) could be withdrawn for elderly residents who had been on treatment for at least one year and to evaluate a method for systematic drug review. DESIGN: Open, prospective, interventional study. SETTING: Four counties in Sweden. SUBJECTS: Elderly residents at 19 nursing homes, with ongoing treatment with SSRIs for more than one year. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Clinical evaluation, registration of drugs used and rating with Montgomery-Asberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS). A semi-structured telephone interview with 15 participating physicians and 19 nurses. RESULTS: About one-third of all 822 residents in the nursing homes had ongoing antidepressant treatment, predominantly with SSRIs; 75% of them had been treated with SSRIs for at least one year and 119 (60%) of these were considered eligible for the study. The intervention was judged successful in 52% of these residents of whom 88% had a MADRS rating of less than 20 points. The GPs and the nurses experienced the method as practicable. CONCLUSIONS: Withdrawal of SSRI treatment was successful in the majority of cases. The MADRS may be a valuable addition to clinical evaluation when deciding whether to end or continue SSRI treatment.
8.
  • Magnusson, G, et al. (författare)
  • Evaluation of screening procedures for congenital cataracts
  • 2003
  • Ingår i: Acta Pædiatrica. - Taylor & Francis. - 1651-2227. ; 92:12, s. 1468-1473
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Aim: To evaluate the efficacy of two different Swedish screening procedures for early detection of congenital cataracts in comparison with no screening. Methods: Children born between January 1992 and December 1998 in Swedish regions with an established eye-screening routine procedure, diagnosed with congenital cataract, and operated on before 1 y of age, were included in a retrospective study. Age at referral and age at time of the operation were compared between regions using different screening procedures: screening in the maternity wards (Region 1), at the well-baby clinics (Region 2) and one region without any screening (Region 3). Results: Seventy-two children were included in the study. Concerning early diagnosis and surgery, Region 1 differed significantly from Regions 2 and 3, which were more similar and were combined for further analysis. The difference in detected cases was greatest at 21 d of age (55% vs 18%; p < 0.001), but persisted even at 100 d of age (78% vs 64%; p < 0.02). Region 1 screening resulted in more and earlier cases detected than the other two regions (22 vs 15 per 100000 births). In 72% of all cases, surgery was performed in response to referrals from either the maternity wards (36%), or the well-baby clinics (36%). However, half of the cases from the well-baby clinics were detected too late, i.e. at >100 d. Conclusion: Eye screening in the maternity ward is preferable to well-baby clinic screening and to no screening at all, since it leads to early detection. Screening should also be performed routinely at well-baby clinics within the period when successful treatment is possible.
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9.
  • Munthe, Christian, 1962- (författare)
  • Will IVF ever be the norm?
  • 2014
  • Ingår i: Future of IVF - A Brave New World? ESHRE symposium, September 26-27, Stockholm.
  • Konferensbidrag (övrigt vetenskapligt)
10.
  • Anderzén-Carlsson, Agneta, et al. (författare)
  • Children's fear as experienced by the parents of children with cancer
  • 2007
  • Ingår i: Journal of Pediatric Nursing : Nursing Care of Children and Families. - Amsterdam : Elsevier. - 0882-5963. ; 22:3, s. 233-244
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • It is known that children with cancer experience and express fear, but little is found in the literature about how the parents experience their child's fear. This study aimed to highlight the parents' lived experience and understanding of their child's fear. Focus group interviews with 15 parents were performed. Data were analyzed through a phenomenological hermeneutic method. Fear in children with cancer is described by the parents as a multidimensional phenomenon, which is somehow difficult to identify. It appears in contrast to the absence of fear. The comprehensive understanding of the results reveals that the parents experience their children's fear as both a suffering and an ethical demand for the parents to answer.
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