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Sökning: hsv:(SAMHÄLLSVETENSKAP) > Naturvetenskap

  • Resultat 1-10 av 6271
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2.
  • Hassellöv, Martin, 1970-, et al. (författare)
  • REACH missar nano!
  • 2009
  • Ingår i: Miljöforskning. ; 3/4
  • Tidskriftsartikel (övrigt vetenskapligt)
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3.
  • Advances in Cognitive Neurodynamics (IV)
  • 2014
  • Proceedings (redaktörskap) (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • Cognition in its essence is dynamic and multilayered, and the pursuit of new clues inevitably leads from one layer to the next, both bottom-up and top-down. Similarly, the nervous system can be described at different organizational levels, e.g. sub-cellular, cellular, network and the level of the entire brain, and each level is characterized by its dynamical states and processes. Knowledge and understanding of the great complexity of neural systems has increased tremendously in the last few decades. Experimental methods, such as patch clamp technique, EEG, MEG, PET, fMRI etc have provided a huge amount of data. At the same time, statistical, mathematical and computational analysis and modeling have contributed to an understanding of the intricate relations between structure, dynamics and function of neural systems at different scales. Both holistic and reductionist approaches have proven essential for a more comprehensive description.  The young and rapidly growing research field of cognitive neurodynamics has evolved from the inter-play between experimental and theoretical/computational neuroscience and cognitive science. Inevitably, this field is highly interdisciplinary, where scientists from many different fields, such as neuroscience, cognitive science, psychology, psychiatry, medicine, mathematics, physics, and computer science contribute to the advancement of the field. In particular, methods to describe, analyze and model nonlinear dynamics, including spiking, bursting, oscillating and chaotic behavior, often in combination with stochastic processes, need to be further developed and applied. Also, advanced techniques to implement the models in artificial systems, computers and robots, are called for.  In order to promote the integration of cognitive science and neurodynamics as a whole, the International Conference on Cognitive Neurodynamics (ICCN) is held biennially since 2007 with support from the international journal Cognitive Neurodynamics (Springer). The first two conferences in the series were held in China (Shanghai and Hangzhou, respectively) and the third conference was held in Japan (Hokkaido).  The 4th conference, ICCN2013, on which these proceedings are based, was for the first time organized outside Asia, in Sigtuna, Sweden on 23-27 June 2013, right after the Swedish Midsummer. The conference was held in the inspiring and creative atmosphere of the Sigtuna Foundation, offering a stimulating forum for scientists, scholars and engineers to review the latest progress in the field of cognitive neurodynamics, and to exchange experiences and ideas. The Sigtuna Foundation with its unique architecture on a hill near the shore of lake Mälaren, provided an excellent setting for the talks and intense discussions, often extending late into the bright midsummer nights.  ICCN2013 attracted 153 participants from 20 different countries, who made this conference a successful and memorable event. There were four keynote talks by leading scientists in the field of cognitive neurodynamics, Prof. Walter Freeman, Prof. Riitta Hari, Prof. Fabio Babiloni, and Prof. Yoko Yamaguchi. In addition, eight plenary talks were given by Prof. Steven Bressler, Prof. Barry Richmond, Prof. Yanchao Bi, Prof. Scott Kelso, Prof. John Hertz, Prof. James Wright, Prof. Paul Rapp, and Prof. Aike Guo. In total 120 papers were presented in oral or poster sessions. The topics ranged from macro- and meso- to microscopic levels, from social and interactive neurodynamics, all the way down to neuronal processes at quantum levels.  This volume fairly well reflects the large span of research presented at ICCN2013. The papers of this volume are grouped in ten parts that are organized essentially in a top-down structure. The first parts deal with social/interactive (I) and mental (II) aspects of brain functions and their relation to perception and cognition (III). Next, more specific aspects of sensory systems (IV) and neural network dynamics of brain functions (V), including the effects of oscillations, synchronization and synaptic plasticity (VI), are addressed, followed by papers particularly emphasizing the use of neural computation and information processing (VII). With the next two parts, the levels of cellular and intracellular processes (VIII) and finally quantum effects (IX) are reached. The last part (X), with the largest number of papers of mixed topics, is devoted to the contributions invited by the Dynamic Brain Forum (DBF), which was co-organized with ICCN2013. 
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4.
  • Gerlee, Philip, 1980-, et al. (författare)
  • Scientific Models
  • 2016
  • Bok (övrigt vetenskapligt)
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5.
  • Hallquist, Mattias, 1969-, et al. (författare)
  • Photochemical Smog in China: Scientific challenges and implications for air quality policies
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: National Science Review. - 2095-5138. ; 3:4, s. 401-403
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • In large areas of China severe air pollution events pose a significant threat to human health, ecosystems and climate. Current reduction of primary emissions will also affect secondary pollutants such as ozone (O3) and particulate matter (PM), but the magnitude of the effects is uncertain. Major scientific challenges are related to the formation of O3 and secondary particulate matter including Secondary Organic Aerosols (SOA). Large uncertainties also remain regarding the interactions of soot, SOA and O3 under the influence of different SO2, NOX and VOC concentrations. To improve the understanding of these secondary atmospheric interactions in China, scientific areas of central importance for photochemically induced air pollutants have been identified. In addition to the scientific challenges, results from research need to be synthesized across several disciplines and communicated to stakeholders affected by air pollution and to policy makers responsible for developing abatement strategies. Development of these science-policy interactions can benefit from experience gained under the UN ECE Convention on Long Range Transboundary Air Pollution (LRTAP)
6.
  • Glimskär, Anders, 1966-, et al. (författare)
  • Land Type Categories as a Complement to Land Use and Land Cover Attributes in Landscape Mapping and Monitoring
  • 2015
  • Ingår i: Land Use and Land Cover Semantics : Principles, Best Practices, and Prospects. - Boca Raton : CRC Press. - 978-1-4822-3739-9 ; s. 171-190
  • Bokkapitel (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • The purpose of land cover and land use descriptions varies, and this influences how these concepts are perceived in different contexts. The increasing need for spatial data for multipurpose monitoring and modeling also increases the demands for compatibility, repeatability, detail, and well-documented criteria. We suggest that threshold values along a continuous scale can be used to create nominal classes for a common conceptual framework. However, the exact values of these thresholds need to be based on well-defined functional and systematic criteria. Ecological and environmental gradients are often mosaic and complex, and several types of land use may coexist at the same site. In reality, land use can be seen as a “shifting cloud” of activities varying in both time and space. We advocate the use of strict definitions of land cover as physical structures and land use as human activities, which raises the need for a complementary concept, which we call “land type,” with stable threshold values based on mutually exclusive functional criteria. Such functional criteria often put clear limits to what spatial resolution is appropriate, since the suitability for a certain purpose (e.g., agriculture or forestry) is determined by the user of the land, rather than by the independent observer. Our example of land type categories comprises a two-level hierarchical classification with seven main types and altogether 28 subtypes. As an example, we discuss the overlapping Swedish definitions of forest and arable land. The criteria that define our main land types are less dependent on how the area is managed at a specific moment in time, and they are therefore less sensitive to short-term variation. The land types define the limits for what land cover and land use can be expected at a certain site, given, for example, ground conditions, water, or artificial structures. Since such land types need to incorporate functional and qualitative understanding and interpretation, human visual interpretation is needed, whereas automated remote sensing methods are suitable mainly for the structural aspects of land cover.
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7.
  • Mamontov, Eugen, 1955- (författare)
  • Ordinary differential equation system for population of individuals and the corresponding probabilistic model
  • 2008
  • Ingår i: Mathl. Computer Modelling. - 0895-7177.
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The key model for particle populations in statistical mechanics is the Bogolyubov–Born– Green–Kirkwood–Yvon (BBGKY) equation chain. It is derived mainly from the Hamilton ordinary differential equation (ODE) system for the vectors of the particle states in the particle position-momentum phase space. Many problems beyond physics or chemistry, for instance, in the living-matter sciences (biology, medicine, ecology, and scoiology) make it necessary to extend the notion of a particle to an individual, or active particle. This challenge is met by the generalized kinetic theory. It implements the extension by extending the phase space from the space of the position-momentum vectors to more rich spaces formed by the state vectors with the entries which need not be limited to the entries of the position and momentum: they include other scalar variables (e.g., those associated with modelling homeorhesis or other features inherent to the individuals). One can assume that the dynamics of the state vector in the extended space, i.e. the states of the individuals (rather than common particles) is also described by an ODE system. The latter, however, need not be the Hamilton one. The question is how one can derive the analogue of the BBGKY paradigm for the new settings. The present work proposes an answer to this question. It applies a very limited number of carefully selected tools of probability theory and common statistical mechanics. It in particular uses the well-known feature that the maximum number of the individuals which can mutually interact simultaneously is bounded by a fixed value of a few units. The present approach results in the finite system of equations for the reduced many-individual distribution functions thereby eliminating the so-called closure problem inevitable in the BBGKY theory. The thermodynamic-limit assumption is not needed either. The system includes consistently derived terms of all of the basic types known in kinetic theory, in particular, both the “mean-field” and scattering-integral terms, and admits the kinetic equation of the form allowing a direct chemical-reaction reading. The present approach can deal with Hamilton’s equation systems which are nonmonogenic and not treated in statistical mechanics. The proposed modelling suggests the basis of the generalized kinetic theory and may serve as the stochastic mechanics of population of individuals.
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10.
  • Arias-Schreiber, Milena, et al. (författare)
  • Addressing social sustainability for small-scale fisheries in Sweden: Institutional barriers for implementing the small-scale fisheries guidelines.
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: The Small-Scale Fisheries Guidelines. Global Implementation.. - Springer Verlag. - 978-3-319-55074-9 ; s. 717-736
  • Bokkapitel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Swedish coastal fisheries are not sustainable in terms of the status of their main fish stocks, their economic profitability, and as source of regular employment. Social sustainability commitments in fisheries governance advocated by the SSF Guidelines have been so far mostly neglected. In this chapter, we bring attention to two institutional settings at different governance levels relevant for the implementation of the SSF Guidelines in the Swedish context. First, we look at the introduction of social goals under the perspective of the EU’s Common Fisheries Policy (CFP). Second, we consider national tensions between forces advocating or opposing a further application of market-based economic instruments, often portrayed as an effective cure for all ills, in fisheries governance. Taking into account the logic on which the SSF Guidelines rest, we evaluate in both cases current processes for stakeholder participation in the formulation of fishing policies and strategies in Sweden. We conclude that the inclusion of a social dimension and stakeholder involvement at the EU level face procedural and institutional limitations that prevent the SSF sector from exploiting opportunities for change. Further challenges to the implementation of the SSF Guidelines arise when central national authorities’ interpretation of societal benefits opposes other interpretations, and consequently economic calculations take precedence over a participatory process-based, knowledge-accumulating approach to resource management. The SSF Guidelines, therefore, provide important material and intellectual resources to make the most of new chances that can lead to an increased likelihood of change in the direction of sustainable coastal fisheries in Sweden.
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