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Sökning: LAR1:lu > Odefinierat språk

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  • Akerstrom, Magnus, et al. (författare)
  • Relationship between mercury in kidney, blood, and urine in environmentally exposed individuals, and implications for biomonitoring
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology. - 0041-008X. ; 320, s. 17-25
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background Individuals without occupational exposure are exposed to mercury (Hg) from diet and dental amalgam. The kidney is a critical organ, but there is limited information regarding the relationship between Hg in kidney (K-Hg), urine (U-Hg), blood (B-Hg), and plasma (P-Hg). Objectives The aim was to determine the relationship between K-Hg, U-Hg, B-Hg, and P-Hg among environmentally exposed individuals, estimate the biological half-time of K-Hg, and provide information useful for biomonitoring of Hg. Methods Kidney cortex biopsies and urine and blood samples were collected from 109 living kidney donors. Total Hg concentrations were determined and the relationships between K-Hg, U-Hg, P-Hg, and B-Hg were investigated in regression models. The half-time of K-Hg was estimated from the elimination constant. Results There were strong associations between K-Hg and all measures of U-Hg and P-Hg (rp = 0.65–0.84, p < 0.001), while the association with B-Hg was weaker (rp = 0.29, p = 0.002). Mean ratios between K-Hg (in μg/g) and U-Hg/24h (in μg) and B-Hg (in μg/L) were 0.22 and 0.19 respectively. Estimates of the biological half-time varied between 30 and 92 days, with significantly slower elimination in women. Adjusting overnight urine samples for dilution using urinary creatinine resulted in less bias in relation to K-Hg or U-Hg/24h, compared with other adjustment techniques. Conclusions The relationship between K-Hg and U-Hg is approximately linear. K-Hg can be estimated using U-Hg and gender. Women have longer half-time of Hg in kidney compared to men. Adjusting overnight urine samples for creatinine concentration resulted in less bias.
  • Alpízar, Francisco, et al. (författare)
  • Spillovers from targeting of incentives: Exploring responses to being excluded
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: Journal of Economic Psychology. - 0167-4870. ; 59, s. 87-98
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • A growing set of policies involve transfers conditioned upon socially desired actions, such as attending school or conserving forest. However, given a desire to maximize the impact of limited funds by avoiding transfers that do not change behavior, typically some potential recipients are excluded on the basis of their characteristics, their actions or at random. This paper uses a laboratory experiment to study the behavior of individuals excluded on different bases from a new incentive that encourages real monetary donations to a public environmental conservation program. We show that the donations from the individuals who were excluded based on prior high contributions fell significantly. Yet the rationale used for exclusion mattered, in that none of the other selection criteria used as the basis for exclusion resulted in negative effects on contributions.
  • Billstedt, Eva, et al. (författare)
  • Neurodevelopmental disorders in young violent offenders: Overlap and background characteristics
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: Psychiatry Research. - 0165-1781. ; 252, s. 234-241
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Neurodevelopmental disorders (Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD), Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD), tic disorder, intellectual disability (ID)), in prison populations have received increased attention but the focus has generally been on one single condition leaving out the global picture. This study assessed the prevalence and overlap of neurodevelopmental disorders (NDD) in a consecutive cohort (n=270) of young adult male offenders (age 18–25 years), sentenced for “hands-on” violent offences and serving prison time in Swedish prisons. Seventy-one percent of all who met inclusion criteria participated. Comprehensive clinical assessments were carried out including history of early antisocial behavior and maladjustment, self-report questionnaires and an intelligence test. Sixty-three percent of the study group met DSM-IV criteria for childhood ADHD, 43% for ADHD in adulthood, 10% met criteria for an ASD, 6% for Tourette syndrome, and 1% for ID. Twenty-two percent had borderline intellectual functioning. A substantial rate of overlap between the NDDs was found. The combined NDD group had an earlier onset of antisocial behavior, had more aggressive behavior and lower school achievements than the non-NDD group. The results highlight the need for prison and probation services to be attentive of and screen for neurodevelopmental disorders in young violent offenders.
  • Björk, Jonas, et al. (författare)
  • Predicting participation in the population-based Swedish cardiopulmonary bio-image study (SCAPIS) using register data
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: Scandinavian Journal of Public Health. - 1403-4948. ; 45, s. 45-49
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Aims: To illustrate the importance of access to register data on determinants and predictors of study participation to assess validity of population-based studies. In the present investigation, we use data on sociodemographic conditions and disease history among individuals invited to the Swedish cardiopulmonary bio-image study (SCAPIS) in order to establish a model that predicts study participation. Methods: The pilot study of SCAPIS was conducted within the city of Gothenburg, Sweden, in 2012, with 2243 invited individuals (50% participation rate). An anonymous data set for the total target population (n = 24,502) was made available by register authorities (Statistics Sweden and the National Board of Health and Welfare) and included indicators of invitation to and participation in SCAPIS along with register data on residential area, sociodemographic variables, and disease history. Propensity scores for participation were estimated using logistic regression. Results: Residential area, country of birth, civil status, education, occupational status, and disposable income were all associated with participation in multivariable models. Adding data on disease history only increased overall classification ability marginally. The associations with disease history were diverse with some disease groups negatively associated with participation whereas some others tended to increase participation. Conclusions: The present investigation stresses the importance of a careful consideration of selection effects in population-based studies. Access to detailed register data also for non-participants can in the statistical analysis be used to control for selection bias and enhance generalizability, thereby making the results more relevant for policy decisions.
  • Blok, Daan, et al. (författare)
  • The response of Arctic vegetation to the summer climate: relation between shrub cover, NDVI, surface albedo and temperature
  • 2011
  • Ingår i: Environmental Research Letters. - IOP Publishing. - 1748-9326. ; 6:3, s. 035502-035502
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Recently observed Arctic greening trends from normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) data suggest that shrub growth is increasing in response to increasing summer temperature. An increase in shrub cover is expected to decrease summer albedo and thus positively feed back to climate warming. However, it is unknown how albedo and NDVI are affected by shrub cover and inter-annual variations in the summer climate. Here, we examine the relationship between deciduous shrub fractional cover, NDVI and albedo using field data collected at a tundra site in NE Siberia. Field data showed that NDVI increased and albedo decreased with increasing deciduous shrub cover. We then selected four Arctic tundra study areas and compiled annual growing season maximum NDVI and minimum albedo maps from MODIS satellite data (2000–10) and related these satellite products to tundra vegetation types (shrub, graminoid, barren and wetland tundra) and regional summer temperature. We observed that maximum NDVI was greatest in shrub tundra and that inter-annual variation was negatively related to summer minimum albedo but showed no consistent relationship with summer temperature. Shrub tundra showed higher albedo than wetland and barren tundra in all four study areas. These results suggest that a northwards shift of shrub tundra might not lead to a decrease in summer minimum albedo during the snow-free season when replacing wetland tundra. A fully integrative study is however needed to link results from satellite data with in situ observations across the Arctic to test the effect of increasing shrub cover on summer albedo in different tundra vegetation types.
  • Chorell, Elin, et al. (författare)
  • Pregnancy to postpartum transition of serum metabolites in women with gestational diabetes
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: Metabolism-Clinical and Experimental. - 0026-0495. ; 72, s. 27-36
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Context Gestational diabetes is commonly linked to development of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). There is a need to characterize metabolic changes associated with gestational diabetes in order to find novel biomarkers for T2DM. Objective To find potential pathophysiological mechanisms and markers for progression from gestational diabetes mellitus to T2DM by studying the metabolic transition from pregnancy to postpartum. Design The metabolic transition profile from pregnancy to postpartum was characterized in 56 women by mass spectrometry-based metabolomics; 11 women had gestational diabetes mellitus, 24 had normal glucose tolerance, and 21 were normoglycaemic but at increased risk for gestational diabetes mellitus. Fasting serum samples collected during trimester 3 (gestational week 32 ± 0.6) and postpartum (10.5 ± 0.4 months) were compared in diagnosis-specific multivariate models (orthogonal partial least squares analysis). Clinical measurements (e.g., insulin, glucose, lipid levels) were compared and models of insulin sensitivity and resistance were calculated for the same time period. Results Women with gestational diabetes had significantly increased postpartum levels of the branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs) leucine, isoleucine, and valine, and their circulating lipids did not return to normal levels after pregnancy. The increase in BCAAs occurred postpartum since the BCAAs did not differ during pregnancy, as compared to normoglycemic women. Conclusions Postpartum levels of specific BCAAs, notably valine, are related to gestational diabetes during pregnancy.
  • Dahlbäck, Cecilia, et al. (författare)
  • Aesthetic result after breast-conserving therapy is associated with quality of life several years after treatment. Swedish women evaluated with BCCT.core and BREAST-Q (TM)
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: Breast Cancer Research and Treatment. - 0167-6806. ; 164:3, s. 679-687
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Purpose: A gold standard for evaluation of aesthetic outcome after breast-conserving therapy (BCT) is still lacking. The BCCT.core software has been developed to assess aesthetic result in a standardised way. We aimed to study how the result of BCCT.core after BCT is associated with quality of life, measured with the BREAST-Q™, a validated questionnaire. Methods: Women eligible for BCT were consecutively recruited between February 1st 2008 and January 31st 2012 (n = 653). Photographs of 310 women, taken one year after BCT, were evaluated using the BCCT.core software. The postoperative BCT module of the BREAST-Q™ questionnaire was administered by mail and 348 questionnaires were returned (median 5.5 years after BCT). In all, 216 women had both BCCT.core results and completed BREAST-Q™ questionnaires available. Results: The results from the BCCT.core evaluation were: excellent n = 49 (15.8%); good n = 178 (57.4%); fair n = 73 (23.5%); poor n = 10 (3.2%). The median BREAST-Q™ score for satisfaction with breasts was 66 [interquartile range (IQR) 57–80] and for psychosocial well-being 82 (IQR 61–100). Poor/fair results on BCCT.core were associated with Q-scores below median for both satisfaction with breasts [odds ratio (OR) 3.4 (confidence interval (CI) 1.7–6.8)] as well as for psychosocial well-being [OR 2.2 (CI 1.1–4.2)]. Conclusions: A statistically significant association between BCCT.core results one year after BCT and quality of life ratings using BREAST-Q™ several years later is shown in this study. This implies that the BCCT.core may be valuable in BCT follow-up and used as a standardised instrument in the evaluation of aesthetic results.
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)
  • Eriksson, Joel, et al. (författare)
  • Causal relationship between obesity and serum testosterone status in men: A bi-directional mendelian randomization analysis
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: PLoS ONE. - 1932-6203. ; 12:4
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Context Obesity in men is associated with low serum testosterone and both are associated with several diseases and increased mortality. Objectives Examine the direction and causality of the relationship between body mass index (BMI) and serum testosterone. Design Bi-directional Mendelian randomization (MR) analysis on prospective cohorts. Setting Five cohorts from Denmark, Germany and Sweden (Inter99, SHIP, SHIP Trend, GOOD and MrOS Sweden). Participants 7446 Caucasian men, genotyped for 97 BMI-associated SNPs and three testosterone-associated SNPs. Main outcome measures BMI and serum testosterone adjusted for age, smoking, time of blood sampling and site. Results 1 SD genetically instrumented increase in BMI was associated with a 0.25 SD decrease in serum testosterone (IV ratio: -0.25, 95% CI: -0.42-0.09, p = 2.8∗10-3). For a body weight reduction altering the BMI from 30 to 25 kg/m2, the effect would equal a 13% increase in serum testosterone. No association was seen for genetically instrumented testosterone with BMI, a finding that was confirmed using large-scale data from the GIANT consortium (n = 104349). Conclusions Our results suggest that there is a causal effect of BMI on serum testosterone in men. Population level interventions to reduce BMI are expected to increase serum testosterone in men.
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