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Sökning: LAR1:lu > Forskningsöversikt

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  • Aad, G., et al. (författare)
  • The ATLAS Experiment at the CERN Large Hadron Collider
  • 2008
  • Ingår i: Journal of Instrumentation. - IOP Publishing. - 1748-0221. ; 3:S08003
  • Forskningsöversikt (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The ATLAS detector as installed in its experimental cavern at point 1 at CERN is described in this paper. A brief overview of the expected performance of the detector when the Large Hadron Collider begins operation is also presented.
  • Aamodt, K., et al. (författare)
  • The ALICE experiment at the CERN LHC
  • 2008
  • Ingår i: Journal of Instrumentation. - IOP Publishing. - 1748-0221. ; 3:S08002
  • Forskningsöversikt (refereegranskat)abstract
    • ALICE (A Large Ion Collider Experiment) is a general-purpose, heavy-ion detector at the CERN LHC which focuses on QCD, the strong-interaction sector of the Standard Model. It is designed to address the physics of strongly interacting matter and the quark-gluon plasma at extreme values of energy density and temperature in nucleus-nucleus collisions. Besides running with Pb ions, the physics programme includes collisions with lighter ions, lower energy running and dedicated proton-nucleus runs. ALICE will also take data with proton beams at the top LHC energy to collect reference data for the heavy-ion programme and to address several QCD topics for which ALICE is complementary to the other LHC detectors. The ALICE detector has been built by a collaboration including currently over 1000 physicists and engineers from 105 Institutes in 30 countries, Its overall dimensions are 16 x 16 x 26 m(3) with a total weight of approximately 10 000 t. The experiment consists of 18 different detector systems each with its own specific technology choice and design constraints, driven both by the physics requirements and the experimental conditions expected at LHC. The most stringent design constraint is to cope with the extreme particle multiplicity anticipated in central Pb-Pb collisions. The different subsystems were optimized to provide high-momentum resolution as well as excellent Particle Identification (PID) over a broad range in momentum, up to the highest multiplicities predicted for LHC. This will allow for comprehensive studies of hadrons, electrons, muons, and photons produced in the collision of heavy nuclei. Most detector systems are scheduled to be installed and ready for data taking by mid-2008 when the LHC is scheduled to start operation, with the exception of parts of the Photon Spectrometer (PHOS), Transition Radiation Detector (TRD) and Electro Magnetic Calorimeter (EMCal). These detectors will be completed for the high-luminosity ion run expected in 2010. This paper describes in detail the detector components as installed for the first data taking in the summer of 2008.
  • Abad, JM, et al. (författare)
  • Immobilization of peroxidase glycoprotein on gold electrodes modified with mixed epoxy-boronic acid monolayers
  • 2002
  • Ingår i: Journal of the American Chemical Society. - The American Chemical Society. - 1520-5126. ; 124:43, s. 12845-12853
  • Forskningsöversikt (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The development of bioelectronic enzyme applications requires the immobilization of active proteins onto solid or colloidal substrates such as gold. Coverage of the gold surface with alkanethiol self-assembled monolayers (SAMS) reduces nonspecific adsorption of proteins and also allows the incorporation onto the surface of ligands with affinity for complementary binding sites on native proteins. We present in this work a strategy for the covalent immobilization of glycosylated proteins previously adsorbed through weak, reversible interactions, on tailored SAMS. Boronic acids, which form cyclic esters with saccharides, are incorporated into SAMS to weakly adsorb the glycoprotein onto the electrode surface through their carbohydrate moiety. To prevent protein release from the electrode surface, we combine the affinity motif of boronates with the reactivity of epoxy groups to covalently link the protein to heterofunctional boronateepoxy SAMS. The principle underlying our strategy is the increased immobilization rate achieved by the weak interaction-induced proximity effect between slow reacting oxyrane groups in the SAM and nucleophilic residues from adsorbed proteins, which allows the formation of very stable covalent bonds. This approach is exemplified by the use of phenylboronates-oxyrane mixed monolayers as a reactive support and redox-enzyme horseradish peroxidase as glycoprotein for the preparation of peroxidase electrodes. Quartz crystal microbalance, atomic force microscopy, and electrochemical measurements are used to characterize these enzymatic electrodes. These epoxy-boronate functional monolayers; are versatile, stable interfaces, ready to incorporate glycoproteins by incubation under mild conditions.
  • Abbott, Jessica K., et al. (författare)
  • Sex chromosome evolution : Historical insights and future perspectives
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences. - Royal Society. - 0962-8452. ; 284:1854
  • Forskningsöversikt (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Many separate-sexed organisms have sex chromosomes controlling sex determination. Sex chromosomes often have reduced recombination, specialized (frequently sex-specific) gene content, dosage compensation and heteromorphic size. Research on sex determination and sex chromosome evolution has increased over the past decade and is today a very active field. However, some areas within the field have not received as much attention as others.We therefore believe that a historic overviewof key findings and empirical discoveries will put current thinking into context and help us better understand where to go next. Here, we present a timeline of important conceptual and analytical models, as well as empirical studies that have advanced the field and changed our understanding of the evolution of sex chromosomes. Finally, we highlight gaps in our knowledge so far and propose some specific areas within the field that we recommend a greater focus on in the future, including the role of ecology in sex chromosome evolution and newmultilocus models of sex chromosome divergence.
  • Abdelaziz, Omar Y., et al. (författare)
  • Biological valorization of low molecular weight lignin
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: Biotechnology Advances. - Elsevier. - 0734-9750. ; 34:8, s. 1318-1346
  • Forskningsöversikt (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Lignin is a major component of lignocellulosic biomass and as such, it is processed in enormous amounts in the pulp and paper industry worldwide. In such industry it mainly serves the purpose of a fuel to provide process steam and electricity, and to a minor extent to provide low grade heat for external purposes. Also from other biorefinery concepts, including 2nd generation ethanol, increasing amounts of lignin will be generated. Other uses for lignin – apart from fuel production – are of increasing interest not least in these new biorefinery concepts. These new uses can broadly be divided into application of the polymer as such, native or modified, or the use of lignin as a feedstock for the production of chemicals. The present review focuses on the latter and in particular the advances in the biological routes for chemicals production from lignin. Such a biological route will likely involve an initial depolymerization, which is followed by biological conversion of the obtained smaller lignin fragments. The conversion can be either a short catalytic conversion into desired chemicals, or a longer metabolic conversion. In this review, we give a brief summary of sources of lignin, methods of depolymerization, biological pathways for conversion of the lignin monomers and the analytical tools necessary for characterizing and evaluating key lignin attributes.
  • Abelev, B., et al. (författare)
  • Performance of the ALICE experiment at the CERN LHC
  • 2014
  • Ingår i: International Journal of Modern Physics A. - World Scientific. - 0217-751X. ; 29:24
  • Forskningsöversikt (refereegranskat)abstract
    • ALICE is the heavy-ion experiment at the CERN Large Hadron Collider. The experiment continuously took data during the first physics campaign of the machine from fall 2009 until early 2013, using proton and lead-ion beams. In this paper we describe the running environment and the data handling procedures, and discuss the performance of the ALICE detectors and analysis methods for various physics observables.
  • Abouassaly, Robert, et al. (författare)
  • Sequelae of Treatment in Long-term Survivors of Testis Cancer
  • 2011
  • Ingår i: European Urology. - Elsevier. - 1873-7560. ; 60:3, s. 516-526
  • Forskningsöversikt (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Context: Testicular cancer patients are often diagnosed at a young age, and because of the advances in the treatment of this disease, the vast majority have a normal life expectancy after therapy. Thus, recognition of the long-term sequelae of treatment (ie, surgery, radiation therapy, and chemotherapy) is particularly important in these patients. Objective: To review the adverse effects and the risk of secondary malignancy in long-term survivors of testicular cancer. Evidence acquisition: We conducted a Medline search to identify original articles and reviews on the long-term effects of testicular cancer treatment. Although the search included articles from January 1948 to February 2011, the majority of the included articles were published in the last two decades. Evidence synthesis: All studies examining the long-term sequelae of treatment in testicular cancer are retrospective in nature, with most classified as cohort, case-control, and/or epidemiologic studies. Given that no standardized method of reporting long-term complications exists, evidence synthesis is limited. Conclusions: Recent evidence suggests an increased risk of cardiovascular disease, neurotoxicity, and mild reductions in renal function in survivors of testicular cancer. Treatment of testicular malignancy can also negatively affect gonadal function and fertility and has been shown to result in an increased risk of solid malignancy and leukemia. (C) 2011 European Association of Urology. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
  • Aboul-Ata, Aboul-Ata E, et al. (författare)
  • Plant-Based Vaccines: Novel and Low-Cost Possible Route for Mediterranean Innovative Vaccination Strategies
  • 2014
  • Ingår i: Advances in Virus Research. - San Diego : Elsevier Academic Press Inc. - 0065-3527. ; 89, s. 1-37
  • Forskningsöversikt (refereegranskat)abstract
    • A plant bioreactor has enormous capability as a system that supports many biological activities, that is, production of plant bodies, virus-like particles (VLPs), and vaccines. Foreign gene expression is an efficient mechanism for getting protein vaccines against different human viral and nonviral diseases. Plants make it easy to deal with safe, inexpensive, and provide trouble-free storage. The broad spectrum of safe gene promoters is being used to avoid risk assessments. Engineered virus-based vectors have no side effect. The process can be manipulated as follows: (a) retrieve and select gene encoding, use an antigenic protein from GenBank and/or from a viral-genome sequence, (b) design and construct hybrid-virus vectors (viral vector with a gene of interest) eventually flanked by plant-specific genetic regulatory elements for constitutive expression for obtaining chimeric virus, (c) gene transformation and/or transfection, for transient expression, into a plant-host model, that is, tobacco, to get protocols processed positively, and then moving into edible host plants, (d) confirmation of protein expression by bioassay, PCR-associated tests (RT-PCR), Northern and Western blotting analysis, and serological assay (ELISA), (e) expression for adjuvant recombinant protein seeking better antigenicity, (f) extraction and purification of expressed protein for identification and dosing, (g) antigenicity capability evaluated using parental or oral delivery in animal models (mice and/or rabbit immunization), and (h) growing of construct-treated edible crops in protective green houses. Some successful cases of heterologous gene-expressed protein, as edible vaccine, are being discussed, that is, hepatitis C virus (HCV). R9 mimotope, also named hypervariable region 1 (HVR1), was derived from the HVR1 of HCV. It was used as a potential neutralizing epitope of HCV. The mimotope was expressed using cucumber mosaic virus coat protein (CP), alfalfa mosaic virus CP P3/RNA3, and tobacco mosaic virus (TMV) CP-tobacco mild green mosaic virus (TMGMV) CP as expression vectors into tobacco plants. Expressed recombinant protein has not only been confirmed as a therapeutic but also as a diagnostic tool. Herpes simplex virus 2 (HSV-2), HSV-2 gD, and HSV-2 VP16 subunits were transfected into tobacco plants, using TMV CP-TMGMV CP expression vectors.
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