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Sökning: LAR1:lu > Licentiatavhandling

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1.
  • Abaravicius, Juozas (författare)
  • Load Management in Residential Buildings: Considering Techno-Economical and Environmental Aspects
  • 2004
  • Licentiatavhandling (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • Load problems in electricity markets occur both on the supply and demand side and can have technical, economic and even political causes. Commonly, such problems have been solved by expanding production and/or distribution capacity, importing electricity or by load management. Load management is a techno-economic measure for harmonizing the relations between supply and demand sides, optimizing power generation and transmission and increasing security of supply. Interest in load management differs depending on the perspective of the actors involved: from customer, utility, or producer to state policymaker. The problem of load demand and load management in residential sector is in this thesis approached from different perspectives, i.e. technical, economic, and environmental. The study does not go deep into detailed analyses of each perspective, but rather aims to establish and analyze the links between them. This trans-disciplinary approach is the key methodological moment used in the research work performed by the research group for load management in buildings at the Lund Institute of Technology. The key objective of this study is to analyze load demand variation and load management possibilities in residential sector, particularly detached and semi-detached houses, to experimentally test and analyze the conditions and potential of direct load management from customer and utility viewpoint. Techno-economic and environmental aspects are investigated. The study was performed in collaboration with one electric utility in Southern Sweden. Ten electric-heated houses were equipped with extra meters, enabling hourly load measurements for heating, hot water and total electricity use. Household heating and hot water systems were controlled by the utility using an existing remote reading and monitoring system. The residents noticed some of the control periods, although they didn’t express any larger discomfort. The experiments proved that direct load management might be a possible solution for the utility to solve their peak demand problems. Another solution, considered by the utility and analyzed in this study is a construction of diesel peak power plant. This alternative has negative environmental consequences compared to load management. The analysis of environmental aspects was extended to national level. To include an environmental perspective is a novel approach, since traditionally, load management evaluation is limited the economic and technical viewpoints. It identifies and discusses the possible environmental benefits of load management and evaluates their significance, primary focusing on CO2 emissions reduction. The results show the importance of considering the influence of site-specific or level-specific conditions on the environmental effects of load management. On the national level, load management measures can hardly provide significant environmental benefits, since hydropower is used as the demand following production source in Sweden. Emission reductions will rather be the result of energy efficiency measures, which will cut the load demand as well as the energy demand.
2.
  • Abbasi, Maisam (författare)
  • Themes and challenges in developing sustainable supply chains
  • 2012
  • Licentiatavhandling (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • Sustainable development is one of the greatest global challenges facing human beings in the 21st century. In order to tackle sustainability related problems, several global, European, and national targets for 2050 have been set. The transition of supply chains activities towards sustainability targets calls for designing new strategies and continuously identifying and tackling the challenges that can hinder the operationalization of such strategies. The purpose of this research was to explore and classify themes and challenges in developing sustainable supply chains activities in general, and freight transport and urban distribution in particular. Three research questions were defined followed by defining the scientific assumptions and research strategies. Three research studies were then designed and carried out to find trustworthy and authentic answers to the corresponding research questions. However, research design, data collection, and data analysis were mixed and overlapping as they were not completely sequentially carried out. Data were collected by triangulation of different research methods, namely, literature review, content analysis, and semi-structured interviews. Analysis of the data was guided by principles of content analysis, discourse analysis, analytic induction, and grounded theory. Synthesis of the analyzed data resulted in the emergence of categories of themes and challenges, the development of hypotheses, and further discussion. In total, five categories of themes were identified for making supply chains environmentally sustainable, fifteen for making freight transport sustainable, and eight for making urban freight distribution sustainable. Five categories of challenges were identified for making supply chains environmentally sustainable, five for making freight transport sustainable, and seven for making urban freight distribution sustainable. All the themes and challenges were then synthesized to determine the patterns of their association. Five major themes in developing sustainable supply chains emerged, namely, increasing sustainability awareness, closing the loop of supply chains, making supply chains energy-efficient, making supply chains environmentally responsible, and managerial issues. Five major challenges in developing sustainable supply chains emerged, namely, change of behavior, costs, implementation, corporate governance, and antagonistic effects and paradoxical conflicts. As the nature of supply chains and the challenges identified in developing them sustainably is complex, a complexity theory perspective was considered beneficial for dealing with them. Such a perspective can enable us to: take a more holistic view of available sustainability-oriented strategies and activities; analyze the antagonistic effects of strategies and activities on each other; recognize conflicts of a paradoxical character that exist in supply chains; analyze the changes influencing and influenced by the strategies and activities; appreciate enough diversity and freedom among the sub-systems rather than too much simplification of them; design and redesign the transition paths for different types of supply chains. A complexity theory perspective can also be beneficial when governing a transformative transition of supply chains towards sustainability targets. Lessons are suggested in the discussion chapter that may help policy and decision makers in designing the future strategies and in tackling the challenges. The themes identified can be beneficial for increasing the absorptive capacity of industries, practitioners, and policy makers while they design innovative strategies for transitions towards sustainability targets. The identified challenges can also be beneficial for reducing the inertia and uncertainties against operationalization of sustainable development in practice.
3.
  • Abdelmassih Waller, Peter (författare)
  • Den utsträckta TV:n - Ett exempel ur praktiken
  • 2007
  • Licentiatavhandling (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • Popular Abstract in Swedish Syftet med den här licentiatuppsatsen är dels att beskriva äldre människors intresse av och möjligheter till att använda TV:n till annat än traditionellt TV-tittande, dels att beskriva olineariteterna i den designprocess i vilken detta arbete ägde rum. Konceptet ”Den utsträckta TV:n” utvecklades och provades (av äldre människor, deras anhöriga och personal) i en ny vårdboendemiljö samtidigt som inflyttning, nyanställning och slutjustering av lokaler och teknik pågick. Totalt omfattades 30 äldre personer, med en ålder mellan 60 och 100 år, i den process som pågick mellan juni 2006 och februari 2007. En avgörande bakgrundsfaktor var att initialmotståndet mot tekniken i sig är lågt när det handlar om en så flitigt använd produkt som TV-apparaten. Detta visade sig också vara sant när - som i detta fallet - det handlade om en TV med platt skärm (gäller för alla rum och är helt oberoende av detta projektet). Funktionerna i den utsträckta TV:n var dels boendegemensamma, dels personliga. De boendegemensamma funktionerna bestod av en intern TV-kanal och två media centers med goda möjligheter att visa gemensamma internproduktioner, annat av allmänt intresse och material som anhöriga tog med sig. Den personliga funktionen handlade om kommunikation utifrån det egna fotoalbumet i den egna TV:n. Den utsträckta TV:ns funktion och användning utvecklades i och genom en väv av visioner, kompetenser, relationer, ansvarsområden och logistiska förutsättningar. Resultaten handlar både om gränssnitt och om de handlande människorna själva (de äldre, deras anhöriga, personalen, IT-konsulter, teknikleverantörer, jag själv och många fler), våra verktyg och handlingsutrymmen. Det som tagit den garanterat längsta tiden är det olineära i designprocessen. Den har varit komplex och ingalunda följt de initiala planerna. Detta är visserligen mer regel än undantag i situerade människonära designprocesser men det dokumenteras alltför sällan. Jag hoppas att lärdomarna från användningen av den utsträckta TV:n skall medverka till nytänkande kring äldre människors TV-tittande.
4.
  • Abrahamsson, Marcus (författare)
  • Uncertainty in Quantitative Risk Analysis - Characterisation and Methods of Treatment
  • 2002
  • Licentiatavhandling (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • The fundamental problems related to uncertainty in quantitative risk analyses, used in decision making in safety-related issues (for instance, in land use planning and licensing procedures for hazardous establishments and activities) are presented and discussed, together with the different types of uncertainty that are introduced in the various stages of an analysis. A survey of methods for the practical treatment of uncertainty, with emphasis on the kind of information that is needed for the different methods, and the kind of results they produce, is also presented. Furthermore, a thorough discussion of the arguments for and against each of the methods is given, and of different levels of treatment based on the problem under consideration. Recommendations for future research and standardisation efforts are proposed.
5.
6.
  • Adalberth, Karin (författare)
  • Bygga - Bruka - Riva : Energianvändning i småhus ur ett kretsloppsperspektiv
  • 1995
  • Licentiatavhandling (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • Detta arbete avgränsas till att behandla energianvändning i småhus. Studien omfattar tre småhus som byggts för utställningen Bo92 i Örebro. Syftet med studien är att beräkna och ta fram kunskaper om den totala energiåtgången under en byggnads hela livscykel. Användningstiden för husen är antagen till 50 år.
7.
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8.
  • Afzali Far, Behrouz (författare)
  • Analytical and Parametric Study of Damped Vibrations in Gough-Stewart Platforms
  • 2014
  • Licentiatavhandling (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • This work establishes a comprehensive and fully parametric model for the damped vibrations of Gough-Stewart Platforms (GSPs) at symmetric configurations. It is noteworthy that in the literature a complete solution to this problem has not been presented. This work has been carried out in three stages which are the subjects of Papers I, II and III. After the industrial stage of the work which is reflected in Paper I, we have generalized the problem and established a fully parametric model of the damped vibrations of GSPs in Paper II and finally extended the model by taking inertia of the struts into consideration in Paper III. The final model is parametrically developed in terms of all the design variables of the system and can be directly employed for the analysis, optimization and control of GSPs. In this work, we parametrically formulate the kinematic equations which are eventually obtained in the form of a Jacobian matrix. The focus of this work is on the Cartesian-space formulation in which Bryant angles, due to their advantages over Euler angles, are chosen to represent the orientation of the platform. The equations of motion are formulated and linearized based on a Lagrangian dynamics approach where Rayleigh axial damping of the struts is introduced to the system. Inertia, stiffness and damping matrices are parametrically formulated. By introducing the inertia of the struts, the inertia matrix turned out to be quite complicated to formulate. Interestingly, despite its apparent symmetrical geometry, the equivalent inertia matrix is obtained as a non-diagonal matrix. The eigenvectors and damped eigenfrequencies of the system are then parametrically established. In addition, the decoupled vibrations are analytically investigated where it is shown that the consideration of strut inertia may lead to significant changes of the decoupled conditions. Finally, for a reference GSP, the vibrational behavior with respect to different design variables are systematically studied.
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