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Sökning: LAR1:lu > VTI - Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut

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  • Adell, Emeli, et al. (författare)
  • How Is Acceptance Measured? : Overview of Measurement Issues, Methods and Tools
  • 2014
  • Ingår i: Driver Acceptance of New Technology : Theory, Measurement and Optimisation. - Farnham, Surrey, England : Ashgate. - 978-1-4094-3984-4 ; s. 74-88
  • Bokkapitel (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • This chapter describes how acceptance has been measured and identifies various measurement categories. The relationship between these measurement methods and the different definitions of acceptance appearing in the literature is described and the lack of correspondence between definition and measurement is highlighted. The chapter illustrates the different outcomes of acceptance measurements depending on choice of assessment method and gives some guidance that could be used depending on the purpose of the assessment.
  • Adell, Emeli, et al. (författare)
  • The Definition of Acceptance and Acceptability.
  • 2014
  • Ingår i: Driver Acceptance of new technology. Theory, Measurement and optimisation.. - Ashgate. - 9781409439844 ; s. 11-22
  • Bokkapitel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Despite the recognised importance of the concept of acceptance, how and why new technologies are actually accepted by drivers is not well understood. While many studies claim to have measured acceptance, few have defined what it is. The chapter points out the importance of defining acceptance and categorizes the definitions that have been used according to their “essence” and the various dimensions of acceptance. A proposal of a common definition is presented.
  • Ahlström, Christer, et al. (författare)
  • Fit-for-duty test for estimation of drivers’ sleepiness level Eye movements improve the sleep/wake predictor
  • 2013
  • Ingår i: Transportation Research Part C : Emerging Technologies. - 0968-090X. ; 26, s. 20-32
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Driver sleepiness contributes to a considerable proportion of road accidents, and a fit-for-duty test able to measure a driver’s sleepiness level might improve traffic safety. The aim of this study was to develop a fit-for-duty test based on eye movement measurements and on the sleep/wake predictor model (SWP, which predicts the sleepiness level) and evaluate the ability to predict severe sleepiness during real road driving. Twenty-four drivers participated in an experimental study which took place partly in the laboratory, where the fit-for-duty data were acquired, and partly on the road, where the drivers sleepiness was assessed. A series of four measurements were conducted over a 24-h period during different stages of sleepiness. Two separate analyses were performed; a variance analysis and a feature selection followed by classification analysis. In the first analysis it was found that the SWP and several eye movement features involving anti-saccades, pro-saccades, smooth pursuit, pupillometry and fixation stability varied significantly with different stages of sleep deprivation. In the second analysis, a feature set was determined based on floating forward selection. The correlation coefficient between a linear combination of the acquired features and subjective sleepiness (Karolinska sleepiness scale, KSS) was found to be R=. 0.73 and the correct classification rate of drivers who reached high levels of sleepiness (KSS ≥ 8) in the subsequent driving session was 82.4% (sensitivity = 80.0%, specificity = 84.2% and AUC = 0.86). Future improvements of a fit-for-duty test should focus on how to account for individual differences and situational/contextual factors in the test, and whether it is possible to maintain high sensitive/specificity with a shorter test that can be used in a real-life environment, e.g. on professional drivers. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.
  • Antonson, Hans, et al. (författare)
  • Landscape heritage objects' effect on driving : a combined driving simulator and questionnaire study.
  • 2014
  • Ingår i: Accident Analysis and Prevention. - 0001-4575. ; 62, s. 168-77
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • According to the literature, landscape (panoramas, heritage objects e.g. landmarks) affects people in various ways. Data are primarily developed by asking people (interviews, photo sessions, focus groups) about their preferences, but to a lesser degree by measuring how the body reacts to such objects. Personal experience while driving a car through a landscape is even more rare.In this paper we study how different types of objects in the landscape affect drivers during their drive. A high-fidelity moving-base driving simulator was used to measure choice of speed and lateral position in combination with stress (heart rate measure) and eye tracking. The data were supplemented with questionnaires. Eighteen test drivers (8 men and 10 women) with a mean age of 37 were recruited. The test drivers were exposed to different new and old types of landscape objects such as 19th century church, wind turbine, 17th century milestone and bus stop, placed at different distances from the road driven.The findings are in some respect contradictory, but it was concluded that that 33% of the test drivers felt stressed during the drive. All test drivers said that they had felt calm at times during the drive but the reason for this was only to a minor degree connected with old and modern objects. The open landscape was experienced as conducive to acceleration. No significant differences could be observed concerning the test drivers' gaze between old or modern objects, but a significant difference was observed between the test drivers' gaze between road stretches with faraway objects and stretches without objects.
  • Antonson, Hans, et al. (författare)
  • Negotiating climate change responses: Regional and local perspectives on transport and coastal zone planning in South Sweden.
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: Land Use Policy. - Elsevier. - 0264-8377. ; 52, s. 297-297
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • tPutting climate change policy-integration into practice is challenged by problems of institutional misfit,due to, inter alia, deficient vertical administrative interplay. While most focus within the field of climatechange research has targeted the national–local interplay, less is known about the interface of regionaland local perspectives. Here, the aim is to study that interface with a specific focus on the relation betweenregional and local spatial planning actors, through a case-study of transport and coastal zone managementin a Swedish municipality. The article is based on interviews (focus group and single in-depth) andofficial planning documents. The material reveals a tricky planning situation, replete with conflict. Inpractice, various institutional frameworks, claims and ambitions collide. The attempts to steer the localspatial planning initiatives from the regional level led to conflicts, which in turn seems to have hamperedthe overall work for climate change management through spatial planning. Furthermore, there are fewtraces of prospects of a smooth vertical institutional interplay able to support the overall aims related tointegrating climate change mitigation and adaptation in spatial planning.
  • Antonson, Hans, et al. (författare)
  • Spatial planning and electric vehicles. A qualitative case study of horizontal and vertical organisational interplay in southern Sweden
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: Journal of Environmental Planning and Management. - Taylor & Francis. - 0964-0568.
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The use of electric-powered vehicles (EV) is experiencing a boom in some countries. Much research has been conducted on the technology per se; however, there is a research gap regarding institutional spatial planning practice concerning EVs. Here, an empirical analysis was made of planners’ interpretations of opportunities and obstacles to integration of EVs in southern Sweden. The results revealed a lack of interplay between local and regional administrations and showed that the agenda is run by individual bureaucrats rather than being based on official strategies. Moreover, there appears to be a lack of horizontal interplay within some organisations, while new arenas are being formed by actors within and outside government. The reason for formation of such external EV networks may be a single actor not being able to push the issue forward alone, due to a fragmented organisation, or a lack of clear external task formulation at central government level.
  • Antonson, Hans, et al. (författare)
  • "This is what we did last time". Uncertainty over landscape analysis and its procurement in the Swedish road planning process
  • 2015
  • Ingår i: Land use policy. - 0264-8377. ; 42, s. 48-57
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • In some European countries, landscape analysis has long been used in support of large-scale planning or major projects such as new trunk roads and mainline rail routes, in line with both the UN's Convention on Environmental Impact Assessment and the European Landscape Convention. Some countries, however, lack a regulatory framework for what should be analysed, how a landscape analysis should be conducted, or even how it should be procured. Sweden is one such country.The research project on which this article is based, uses in-depth interviews with twelve key Swedish officials to consider landscape analysis issues in the planning and procurement of road and railway infrastructure. The findings point to the fact that skilled transport planners are not entirely comfortable with the current situation, and the way landscape analysis is handled in daily planning practice varies enormously. For example, nearly all the respondents believe that the way formal landscape analyses are procured is important, not least to ensure quality, yet at the same time they are rarely commissioned separately, even when this is explicitly stipulated by the regulations. There is no generally accepted notion of what 'landscape' might be, and the terms in which respondents describe the landscape do not correspond to the official landscape terminology as set down in the ELC.
  • Antonson, Hans, et al. (författare)
  • Tourism development strategy or just brown signage? : Comparing road administration policies and designation procedures for official tourism routes in two Scandinavian countries
  • 2014
  • Ingår i: Land use policy. - 0264-8377. ; 36, s. 342-350
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • This comparative study maps and explores planning and designation of official tourism, routes in two countries with quite similar planning traditions, responding to a deficiency in research, on tourism route planning and development.Based on personal semi-structured interviews with, public road planners and managers in Norway and Sweden, the paper illuminates establishment and, management of official tourism routes, with an emphasis on overall strategies, funding, and, stakeholder involvement.Results show that public road administration route planning procedures in, the two countries are quite different. In Norway, a top-down principle is basically employed, concerning initiatives and designation of routes.In Sweden, the principle is one of muddling through, giving street-level planners more opportunities for individual influence on route planning. Funding for, road stretches included in the Norwegian national route programme is earmarked, whereas Swedish, routes are financed from ordinary appropriations to the regional road administrations.In Norway, regular follow-up studies such as road user surveys are conducted. In Sweden, a dearth of, documentation of tourist interests and route assessments seemingly makes route development, susceptible in relation to regional road administrations' economic priorities.
  • Anund, Anna, et al. (författare)
  • Stakeholders’ opinions on a future in-vehicle alcohol detection system for prevention of drunk driving
  • 2015
  • Ingår i: Traffic Injury Prevention. - Taylor & Francis. - 1538-9588. ; 16:4, s. 336-344
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Introduction: There is a common understanding that driving under the influence of alcohol is associated with higher risk of being involved in crashes with injuries and possible fatalities as the outcome. Various countermeasures have therefore from time to time been taken by the authorities to prevent drunk driving. One of them has been the alcohol interlock. Up to now, interlocks have mainly been used by previously convicted drunk drivers and in the commercial road transport sector, but not in private cars.Objective and Method: New technology has today reached a level where broader implementation might be possible. To our knowledge, however, little is known about different stakeholders' opinions of a broader implementation of such systems. In order to increase that knowledge, we conducted a focus group study to collect in-depth thoughts from different stakeholders on this topic. Eight focus groups representing a broad societal span were recruited and conducted for the purpose.Results and Conclusions: The results show that most stakeholders thought that an integrated system for alcohol detection in vehicles might be beneficial in lowering the number of drunk driving crashes. They said that the system would probably mainly prevent driving by people who unintentionally and unknowingly drive under the influence of alcohol. The groups did, however, not regard the system as a final solution to the drunk driving problem, and believed that certain groups, such as criminals and alcoholics, would most likely find a way around the system.Concerns were raised about the risk of increased sleepy driving and driving just under the legal blood alcohol concentration (BAC) limit. The results also indicate that stakeholders preferred a system that provides information on the BAC up to the legal limit, but not for levels above the limit; for those, the system should simply prevent the car from starting. Acceptance of the system depended on the reliability of the system, on its ability to perform fast sampling, and on the analytical process, as well as the system's more or less inconspicuous placement and user-friendliness. The stakeholders thought that drivers would probably not voluntarily demand the system. So if broad implementation was desired, it would have to be made compulsory by legislation. As an incentive to increase demand, lower taxes and insurance premiums were suggested.
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