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  • Aaboen, Lise, 1978-, et al. (författare)
  • Exploring the roles of university spin-offs in business networks
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: Industrial Marketing Management. - Elsevier. - 0019-8501. ; 59, s. 157-166
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • This paper identifies different university spin-off (USO) roles related to resource interaction among business parties. It does so by mapping how USOs become part of business networks in terms of their roles relative to other parties. The theoretical frame of reference focuses on roles and resource interaction based on an industrial network approach to business markets. The empirical research is based on five cases of USOs representing a variety in terms of technology, degree of newness, sector, and area of application. As a result of the analysis, three different roles are identified: the USO as resource mediator, resource re-combiner and resource renewer. These roles reflect how USOs adapt resources to, or require changes among, business parties' resources. The paper also discusses the main resource interfaces associated with the three roles and related challenges. The paper contributes to previous research through illustrating USOs' roles relative to business parties from a resource interaction point of view, and by pointing to the establishment of new companies in business networks as a way of implementing innovation. Finally, the paper discusses the managerial implications of the research in terms of the USO's need to understand which role to take and how to develop it.
  • Abdurahman, Samir, et al. (författare)
  • Isolation and characterization of a small antiretroviral molecule affecting HIV-1 capsid morphology
  • 2009
  • Ingår i: Retrovirology. - BioMed Central. - 1742-4690. ; 6:34
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background Formation of an HIV-1 particle with a conical core structure is a prerequisite for the subsequent infectivity of the virus particle. We have previously described that glycineamide (G-NH2) when added to the culture medium of infected cells induces non-infectious HIV-1 particles with aberrant core structures. Results Here we demonstrate that it is not G-NH2 itself but a metabolite thereof that affects HIV-1 infectivity and capsid assembly. The conversion of G-NH2 to its antiviral metabolite is catalyzed by an enzyme present in bovine and porcine but surprisingly not in human serum. Structure determination by NMR suggested that the active G-NH2 metabolite was α-hydroxyglycineamide (α-HGA). Chemically synthesized α-HGA inhibited HIV-1 replication to the same degree as G-NH2, unlike a number of other synthesized analogues of G-NH2 which had no effect on HIV-1 replication. Comparisons by capillary electrophoresis and HPLC of the metabolite with the chemically synthesized α-HGA further confirmed that the antiviral GNH2-metabolite indeed was α-HGA. Conclusions α-HGA has an unusually simple structure and a novel mechanism of antiviral action. Thus, α-HGA could be a lead for new antiviral substances belonging to a new class of anti-HIV drugs, i.e. capsid assembly inhibitors.
  • Abraham-Nordling, Mirna, et al. (författare)
  • Incidence of hyperthyroidism in Sweden
  • 2011
  • Ingår i: European Journal of Endocrinology1994-01-01+01:00. - Society of the European Journal of Endocrinology. - 1479-683X. ; 165:6, s. 899-905
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Introduction: The incidence of hyperthyroidism has been reported in various countries to be 23-93/100000 inhabitants per year. This extended study has evaluated the incidence for similar to 40% of the Swedish population of 9 million inhabitants. Sweden is considered to be iodine sufficient country. Methods:All patients including children, who were newly diagnosed with overt hyperthyroidism in the years 2003-2005, were prospectively registered in a multicenter study. The inclusion criteria are as follows:clinical symptoms and/or signs of hyperthyroidism with plasma TSH concentration below 0.2 mIE/l and increased plasma levels of free/total triiodothyronine and/or free/total thyroxine. Patients with relapse of hyperthyroidism or thyroiditis were not included. The diagnosis of Graves' disease (GD), toxic multinodular goiter (TMNG) and solitary toxic adenoma (STA), smoking, initial treatment, occurrence of thyroid-associated eye symptoms/signs, and demographic data were registered. Results:A total of 2916 patients were diagnosed with de novo hyperthyroidism showing the total incidence of 27.6/100 000 inhabitants per year. The incidence of GD was 21.0/100 000 and toxic nodular goiter (TNG=STA+TMNG) occurred in 692 patients, corresponding to an annual incidence of 6.5/100 000. The incidence was higher in women compared with men (4.2:1). Seventy-five percent of the patients were diagnosed with GD, in whom thyroid-associated eye symptoms/signs occurred during diagnosis in every fifth patient. Geographical differences were observed. Conclusion:The incidence of hyperthyroidism in Sweden is in a lower range compared with international reports. Seventy-five percent of patients with hyperthyroidism had GD and 20% of them had thyroid-associated eye symptoms/signs during diagnosis. The observed geographical differences require further studies.
  • Acosta, Stefan, et al. (författare)
  • Current status on plasma biomarkers for acute mesenteric ischemia.
  • 2011
  • Ingår i: Journal of Thrombosis and Thrombolysis. - Springer. - 1573-742X.
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Clinical diagnosis of acute mesenteric ischemia is difficult. The aim of this review is to provide current status on the search for an accurate plasma biomarker for acute mesenteric ischemia. A search using the medical subject heading terms marker and mesenteric ischemia or intestinal ischemia or superior mesenteric artery occlusion or mesenteric venous thrombosis in the Medline and Embase databases from 1980 to 2011. Studies without a control group or a control group consisted of healthy individuals (human studies), or studies on intestinal reperfusion were excluded. Twenty animal and twelve human studies were identified. In human studies, the studied series of patients had a control group that had a need of laparotomy (n = 2), suspected acute mesenteric ischemia (n = 7), acute abdomen (n = 2) or systemic inflammatory response syndrome (n = 1). D: -dimer has been found to be the most consistent highly sensitive early marker, but specificity was low. The follow-up study on α-glutathione S-transferase yielded inferior sensitivity and accuracy than the preliminary study, clearly questioning the value of this marker. Intestinal fatty acid binding globulin (I-FABP) and D: -lactate are both interesting markers, but the results were conflicting. Different cut-off levels have been used in the studies on I-FABP. The encouraging preliminary result of cobalt-albumin and urinary FABP as an accurate marker needs to be addressed in other study populations. The early clinical and laboratory diagnosis of intestinal ischemia remains a challenge. None of the proposed plasma-derived tests for acute mesenteric ischemia has as yet entered routine clinical practice. The proposed biomarkers need to be evaluated in a prospective clinical research project in patients with acute abdomen.
  • Acosta, Stefan, et al. (författare)
  • Diagnostic Pitfalls at Admission in Patients with Acute Superior Mesenteric Artery Occlusion.
  • 2012
  • Ingår i: Journal of Emergency Medicine. - Elsevier USA. - 1090-1280. ; 42:6, s. 635-641
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BACKGROUND: Acute superior mesenteric artery (SMA) occlusion leads to acute intestinal ischemia and is associated with high mortality. Early diagnosis is often missed, and confounding factors leading to diagnostic delays need to be highlighted. OBJECTIVES: To identify potential diagnostic laboratory pitfalls at admission in patients with acute SMA occlusion. METHODS: Fifty-five patients with acute SMA occlusion were identified from the in-hospital register during a 4-year period, 2005-2009. RESULTS: The median age was 76 years; 78% were women. The occlusion was embolic in 53% and thrombotic in 47% of patients. At admission, troponin I was above the clinical decision level (> 0.06 μg/L) for acute ischemic myocardial injury in 9/19 (47%) patients with embolic occlusion. Elevated pancreas amylase and normal plasma lactate were found in 12/45 and 13/27, respectively. A troponin I (TnI) above the clinical decision level was associated with a high frequency of referrals from the general surgeon to a specialist in internal medicine (p = 0.011) or a cardiologist (p = 0.024). The diagnosis was established after computed tomography angiography in 98% of the patients. The overall in-hospital mortality rate was 33%. Attempting intestinal revascularization (n = 43; p < 0.001), with a 95% frequency rate of completion control of the vascular procedure, was associated with a higher survival rate, whereas referral to the cardiologist was associated with a higher mortality rate (p = 0.018). CONCLUSION: Elevated TnI was common in acute SMA occlusion, and referral to the cardiologist was found to be associated with adverse outcome. Elevated pancreas amylase and normal plasma lactate values are also potential pitfalls at admission in patients with acute SMA occlusion.
  • Acosta, Stefan, et al. (författare)
  • L-lactate after embolization of the superior mesenteric artery
  • 2007
  • Ingår i: Journal of Surgical Research. - Elsevier. - 1095-8673. ; 143:2, s. 320-328
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background. Plasma markers for intestinal ischemia have not proven to be accurate. The value of L-lactate is unclear. Experimental models based on open surgery confound the effects of surgical trauma with that of ischemia. The aim was to create an endovascular model for acute superior mesenteric artery thromboembolism, and then to study L-lactate and lactate dehydrogenase (LD) activity in plasma and peritoneal fluid in pigs with extensive, high-grade intestinal ischemia. Materials and methods. Nine pigs underwent full superior mesenteric artery embolization with 4 h of intended intestinal ischemia, whereas six were control animals. Sampling of central venous and arterial blood was performed throughout the experiment, ending with laparotomy to collect peritoneal fluid and segmental intestinal biopsies. A pathologist, blinded to the performed interventions, graded the ischemic lesions. Results. There were no differences in plasma L-lactate (P = 0.61) or LD activity levels (P = 0.69), measured at different time points from baseline to end of study, between animals with extensive, high-grade intestinal ischemia and sham. Intraperitoneal L-Lactate (P = 0.005) and LD activity (P = 0.018) levels were elevated compared with sham. There were differences in grades of ischemia in the duodenum (P = 0.003), small intestine (P < 0.001), proximal (P < 0.001), and sigmoid (P = 0.032) colon between experimental animals and sham. The grade of small bowel ischemia (n = 15) correlated to intraperitoneal fluid L-lactate (r = 0.80; P < 0.001) and LD activity levels (r = 0.72; P = 0.003). Conclusions. This endovascular study in a porcine model showed that L-lactate and LD activity levels in peritoneal fluid, not in plasma, reflect intestinal ischemia. The study suggests that plasma L-lactate not is a useful early marker in patients with suspicion of intestinal ischemia. (c) 2007 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
  • Adamic, M., et al. (författare)
  • Guidelines of care for vascular lasers and intense pulse light sources from the European Society for Laser Dermatology
  • 2015
  • Ingår i: Journal of the European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology. - Elsevier. - 1468-3083. ; 29:9, s. 1661-1678
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • AimLasers and non-coherent intense pulse light sources (IPLS) are based on the principle of selective photothermolysis and can be used for the treatment of many vascular skin lesions. A variety of lasers has been developed for the treatment of congenital and acquired vascular lesions which incorporate these concepts into their design. Although laser and light sources are very popular due to their non-invasive nature, caution should be considered by practitioners and patients to avoid permanent side-effects. The aim of these guidelines is to give evidence-based recommendations for the use of lasers and IPLS in the treatment of vascular lesions. MethodsThese guidelines were produced by a Consensus Panel made up of experts in the field of vascular laser surgery under the auspices of the European Society of Laser Dermatology. Recommendations on the use of vascular lasers and IPLS were made based on the quality of evidence for efficacy, safety, tolerability, cosmetic outcome, patient satisfaction/preference and, where appropriate, on the experts' opinion. The recommendations of these guidelines are graded according to the American College of Chest Physicians Task Force recommendations on Grading Strength of Recommendations and Quality of Evidence in Clinical Guidelines. ResultsLasers and IPLS are very useful and sometimes the only available method to treat various vascular lesions. It is of a paramount importance that the type of laser or IPLS and their specific parameters are adapted to the indication but also that the treating physician is familiar with the device to be used. The crucial issue in treating vascular lesions is to recognize the immediate end-point after laser treatment. This is the single most important factor to ensure both the efficacy of the treatment and avoidance of serious side-effects.
  • Adolfsson, Jan, et al. (författare)
  • Clinical characteristics and primary treatment of prostate cancer in Sweden between 1996 and 2005 - Data from the national prostate cancer register in Sweden
  • 2007
  • Ingår i: Scandinavian Journal of Urology and Nephrology1967-01-01+01:002013-01-01+01:00. - Taylor & Francis. - 0036-5599. ; 41:6, s. 456-477
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Objective. The incidence of prostate cancer is rising rapidly in Sweden and there is a need to better understand the pattern of diagnosis, tumor characteristics and treatment. Material and methods. Between 1996 and 2005, all new cases of adenocarcinoma of the prostate gland were intended to be registered in the National Prostate Cancer Register (NPCR). This register contains information on diagnosing unit, date of diagnosis, cause of diagnosis, tumor grade, tumor stage according to the TNM classification in force, serum prostate-specific antigen (PSA) levels at diagnosis and primary treatment given within the first 6 months after diagnosis. Results. In total, 72 028 patients were registered, comprising > 97% of all pertinent incident cases of prostate cancer in the Swedish Cancer Register (SCR). During the study period there was a considerable decrease in median age at the time of diagnosis, a stage migration towards smaller tumors, a decrease in median serum PSA values at diagnosis, a decrease in the age-standardized incidence rate of men diagnosed with distant metastases or with a PSA level of > 100 ng/ml at diagnosis and an increase in the proportion of tumors with Gleason score <= 6. Relatively large geographical differences in the median age at diagnosis and the age-standardized incidence of cases with category T1c tumors were observed. Treatment with curative intent increased dramatically and treatment patterns varied according to geographical region. In men with localized tumors and a PSA level of <20 ng/ml at diagnosis, expectant treatment was more commonly used in those aged >= 75 years than in those aged <75 years. Also, the pattern of endocrine treatment varied in different parts of Sweden. Conclusions. All changes in the register seen over time are consistent with increased diagnostic activity, especially PSA testing, resulting in an increased number of cases with early disease, predominantly tumors in category T1c. The patterns of diagnosis and treatment of prostate cancer vary considerably in different parts of Sweden. The NPCR continues to be an important source for research, epidemiological surveillance of the incidence, diagnosis and treatment of prostate cancer.
  • Agardh, Carl-David, et al. (författare)
  • Varning för okritisk användning av överviktskirurgi vid typ 2-diabetes.
  • 2012
  • Ingår i: Läkartidningen. - Swedish Medical Association. - 0023-7205. ; 109:25, s. 1208-1209
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Överviktskirurgi diskuteras nu som ett behandlingsalternativ även för patienter med typ 2-diabetes där BMI inte överstiger nuvarande indikationsgräns 35 kg/m2. Artikelförfattarna vill varna för en sådan utveckling i avvaktan på kritisk värdering av denna typ av kirurgi.
  • Ahlin, Cecilia, et al. (författare)
  • Cyclin A is a proliferative marker with good prognostic value in node-negative breast cancer
  • 2009
  • Ingår i: Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers and Prevention. - 1055-9965 .- 1538-7755. ; 18:9, s. 2501-2506
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: Proliferative markers are not recommended as prognostic   factors for clinical use in breast cancer due to lack of   standardization in methodology. However, proliferation is driving   several gene expression signatures emphasizing the need for a reliable   proliferative marker IF or clinical use. Studies suggest that cyclin A   is a prognostic marker with satisfying reproducibility. We investigated   cyclin A as a prognostic marker in node-negative breast cancer using   previously defined cutoff values.   Patients and Methods: In a case-control study, we defined 190 women who   died from breast cancer as cases and 190 women alive at the time for   the corresponding case's death as controls. Inclusion criteria were   tumor size &lt;= 50 mm, no lymph node metastases and no adjuvant   chemotherapy. Tumor tissues were immunostained for cyclin A using   commercially available antibodies.   Results: We found a statistically significant association between   expression of cyclin A and breast cancer death in a univariate model:   odds ratio for cyclin A(ave) 2.7 [95% confidence interval (CI),   1.7-4.3] and cyclin A(max) 3.4 (CI, 2.1-5.5). Corresponding odds ratio   for Ki67 were Ki67(ave) 1.9 (CI, 1.2-3.1) and Ki67(max) 1.7 (CI,   1.1-2.7) and for grade 3.1 (CI, 1.8-5.1). Cyclin A was strongly   correlated to Ki67 and grade why a model including all was not   appropriate.   Conclusions: Cyclin A is a prognostic factor for breast cancer death in   node-negative patients using standardized methodology regarding scoring   and cutoff values. Adding cyclin A as a proliferative marker to established clinicopathologic factors will improve the separation of  low and high risk breast cancer.
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