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Sökning: LAR1:lu > Naturhistoriska riksmuseet

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1.
  • Alerstam, Thomas, et al. (författare)
  • Flight speeds among bird species: allometric and phylogenetic effects
  • 2007
  • Ingår i: PLoS Biology. - Public Library of Science. - 1544-9173. ; 5:8, s. 1656-1662
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Analysing the variation in flight speed among bird species is important in understanding flight. We tested if the cruising speed of different migrating bird species in flapping flight scales with body mass and wing loading according to predictions from aerodynamic theory and to what extent phylogeny provides an additional explanation for variation in speed. Flight speeds were measured by tracking radar for bird species ranging in size from 0.01 kg (small passerines) to 10 kg (swans). Equivalent airspeeds of 138 species ranged between 8 and 23 m/s and did not scale as steeply in relation to mass and wing loading as predicted. This suggests that there are evolutionary restrictions to the range of flight speeds that birds obtain, which counteract too slow and too fast speeds among bird species with low and high wing loading, respectively. In addition to the effects of body size and wing morphology on flight speed, we also show that phylogeny accounted for an important part of the remaining speed variation between species. Differences in flight apparatus and behaviour among species of different evolutionary origin, and with different ecology and flight styles, are likely to influence cruising flight performance in important ways.
2.
  • BADAWY, AHMED SALAH, et al. (författare)
  • Late Ordovician (Katian) spores in Sweden : : oldest land plant remains from Baltica
  • 2014
  • Ingår i: GFF. - Geological Society of Sweden. - 2000-0863. ; 136:1, s. 16-21
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • A palynologial study of the Ordovician-Silurian boundary (Katian–Rhuddanian) succession in the Röstånga-1 drillcore, southern Sweden, has been performed. The lithology is dominated by mudstone and graptolitic shale, with subordinate limestone, formed in the deeper marine halo of southern Baltica. The palynological assemblages are dominated by marine microfossils, mainly chitinozoans and acritarchs. Sparse but well preserved cryptospores, including Tetrahedraletes medinensis, T. grayii and Pseudodyadospora sp., were encountered in the Lindegård Formation (late Katian–early Hirnantian), with the oldest record just above the first appearance of the graptolite species Dicellograptus complanatus. This represents the earliest record of early land plant spores from Sweden and possibly also from Baltica and implies that land plants had migrated to the palaeocontinent Baltica by at least the Late Ordovician.
3.
  • Barao, Lucia, et al. (författare)
  • Alkaline-extractable silicon from land to ocean: A challenge for biogenic silicon determination
  • 2015
  • Ingår i: Limnology and Oceanography: Methods. - Wiley-Blackwell. - 1541-5856. ; 13:7, s. 329-344
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The biogeochemical cycling of silicon (Si) along the land-to-ocean continuum is studied by a variety of research fields and for a variety of scientific reasons. However, there is an increasing need to refine the methodology and the underlying assumptions used to determine biogenic silica (BSi) concentrations. Recent evidence suggests that contributions of nonbiogenic sources of Si dissolving during alkaline extractions, not corrected by standard silicate mineral dissolution correction protocols, can be substantial. The ratio between dissolved Si and aluminum (Al) monitored continuously during the alkaline extraction can be used to infer the origin of the Si fractions present. In this study, we applied both a continuous analysis method (0.5 M NaOH) and a traditional 0.1 M Na2CO3 extraction to a wide array of samples: (1) terrestrial vegetation, (2) soils from forest, cropland and pasture, (3) lake sediments, (4) suspended particulate matter and sediments from rivers, (5) sediments from estuaries and salt marshes and (6) ocean sediments. Our results indicate that the 0.1 M Na2CO3 extraction protocol can overestimate the BSi content, by simultaneously dissolving Si fractions of nonbiogenic origin that may represent up to 100% of the Si traditionally considered as biogenic, hampering interpretation especially in some deeper soil horizons, rivers and coastal oceanic sediments. Moreover, although the term amorphous Si was coined to reflect a growing awareness of nonbiogenic phases we show it is actually inappropriate in samples where silicate minerals may account for a large part of the extracted Si even after linear mineral correction.
4.
  • Bisang, Irene, et al. (författare)
  • Can the meiotic sex ratio explain the sex ratio bias in adult populations in the dioicous moss Drepanocladus lycopodioides?
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: Journal of Bryology. - Maney Publishing. - 0373-6687.
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Sex ratio variation is commonly observed in natural populations of many organisms with separate sexes and genetic sex determination, including bryophytes. Most bryophyte populations exhibit female-skewed expressed adult sex ratios, generally inferred from counts of sexually mature plants. For the rarely sexually reproducing perennial dioicous moss Drepanocladus lycopodioides, we showed that a female bias also exists in the genetic adult sex ratio, using a specifically designed molecular sex-associated marker. Here, we investigated whether the meiotic spore sex ratio contributes to the observed bias in genetic adult sex ratio in natural populations. Earlier attempts to study meiotic sex ratios have involved commonly cultivated ruderals that rapidly express sex in the laboratory. We established single-spore cultures from field-collected sporophytes from these populations and used the marker to assess the sex of individual sporelings. Spore germinability was (near) complete, and mortality among sporelings was virtually absent. The true meiotic sex ratio did not differ from equality, but strongly differed both from the observed genetic sex ratios in the natural adult populations, and from the European scale genetic sex ratio. We conclude that the biased population sex ratios in this species arise at life cycle stages after spore germination. Sexual dimorphism may selectively favour female proliferation during some phase of gametophyte development. Based on methodological progress, we successfully used a perennial study species with rare sexual reproduction, which significantly broadens the life history spectrum investigated in bryophyte sex ratio studies.
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5.
  • Bomfleur, Benjamin, et al. (författare)
  • Fossilized Nuclei and Chromosomes Reveal 180 Million Years of Genomic Stasis in Royal Ferns
  • 2014
  • Ingår i: Science. - The American Association for the Advancement of Science. - 1095-9203. ; 343:6177, s. 1376-1377
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Rapidly permineralized fossils can provide exceptional insights into the evolution of life over geological time. Here, we present an exquisitely preserved, calcified stem of a royal fern (Osmundaceae) from Early Jurassic lahar deposits of Sweden in which authigenic mineral precipitation from hydrothermal brines occurred so rapidly that it preserved cytoplasm, cytosol granules, nuclei, and even chromosomes in various stages of cell division. Morphometric parameters of interphase nuclei match those of extant Osmundaceae, indicating that the genome size of these reputed "living fossils" has remained unchanged over at least 180 million years-a paramount example of evolutionary stasis.
6.
  • Chi Fru, Ernest, et al. (författare)
  • Biogenicity of an Early Quaternary iron formation, Milos Island, Greece
  • 2015
  • Ingår i: Geobiology. - 1472-4677. ; 13:3, s. 225-244
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • A ~2.0-million-year-old shallow-submarine sedimentary deposit on Milos Island, Greece, harbours an unmetamorphosed fossiliferous iron formation (IF) comparable to Precambrian banded iron formations (BIFs). This Milos IF holds the potential to provide clues to the origin of Precambrian BIFs, relative to biotic and abiotic processes. Here, we combine field stratigraphic observations, stable isotopes of C, S and Si, rock petrography and microfossil evidence from a ~5-m-thick outcrop to track potential biogeochemical processes that may have contributed to the formation of the BIF-type rocks and the abrupt transition to an overlying conglomerate-hosted IF (CIF). Bulk δ13C isotopic compositions lower than -25‰ provide evidence for biological contribution by the Calvin and reductive acetyl–CoA carbon fixation cycles to the origin of both the BIF-type and CIF strata. Low S levels of ~0.04 wt.% combined with δ34S estimates of up to ~18‰ point to a non-sulphidic depository. Positive δ30Si records of up to +0.53‰ in the finely laminated BIF-type rocks indicate chemical deposition on the seafloor during weak periods of arc magmatism. Negative δ30Si data are consistent with geological observations suggesting a sudden change to intense arc volcanism potentially terminated the deposition of the BIF-type layer. The typical Precambrian rhythmic rocks of alternating Fe- and Si-rich bands are associated with abundant and spatially distinct microbial fossil assemblages. Together with previously proposed anoxygenic photoferrotrophic iron cycling and low sedimentary N and C potentially connected to diagenetic denitrification, the Milos IF is a biogenic submarine volcano-sedimentary IF showing depositional conditions analogous to Archaean Algoma-type BIFs.
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7.
  • Clymans, Wim, et al. (författare)
  • Silica uptake and release in live and decaying biomass in a northern hardwood forest
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: Ecology. - Ecological Society of America. - 0012-9658. ; 97:11, s. 3044-3057
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • In terrestrial ecosystems, a large portion (20-80%) of the dissolved Si (DSi) in soil solution has passed through vegetation. While the importance of this terrestrial Si filter is generally accepted, few data exist on the pools and fluxes of Si in forest vegetation and the rate of release of Si from decomposing plant tissues. We quantified the pools and fluxes of Si through vegetation and coarse woody debris (CWD) in a northern hardwood forest ecosystem (Watershed 6, W6) at the Hubbard Brook Experimental Forest (HBEF) in New Hampshire, USA. Previous work suggested that the decomposition of CWD may have significantly contributed to an excess of DSi reported in stream-waters following experimental deforestation of Watershed 2 (W2) at the HBEF. We found that woody biomass (wood + bark) and foliage account for approximately 65% and 31%, respectively, of the total Si in biomass at the HBEF. During the decay of American beech (Fagus grandifolia) boles, Si loss tracked the whole-bole mass loss, while yellow birch (Betula alleghaniensis) and sugar maple (Acer saccharum) decomposition resulted in a preferential Si retention of up to 30% after 16 yr. A power-law model for the changes in wood and bark Si concentrations during decomposition, in combination with an exponential model for whole-bole mass loss, successfully reproduced Si dynamics in decaying boles. Our data suggest that a minimum of 50% of the DSi annually produced in the soil of a biogeochemical reference watershed (W6) derives from biogenic Si (BSi) dissolution. The major source is fresh litter, whereas only ~2% comes from the decay of CWD. Decay of tree boles could only account for 9% of the excess DSi release observed following the experimental deforestation of W2. Therefore, elevated DSi concentrations after forest disturbance are largely derived from other sources (e.g., dissolution of BSi from forest floor soils and/or mineral weathering).
8.
  • Divakar, Pradeep K., et al. (författare)
  • Evolution of complex symbiotic relationships in a morphologically derived family of lichen-forming fungi
  • 2015
  • Ingår i: New Phytologist. - 0028-646X. ; 208:4, s. 1217-1226
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • We studied the evolutionary history of the Parmeliaceae (Lecanoromycetes, Ascomycota), one of the largest families of lichen-forming fungi with complex and variable morphologies, also including several lichenicolous fungi. We assembled a six-locus data set including nuclear, mitochondrial and low-copy protein-coding genes from 293 operational taxonomic units (OTUs). The lichenicolous lifestyle originated independently three times in lichenized ancestors within Parmeliaceae, and a new generic name is introduced for one of these fungi. In all cases, the independent origins occurred c. 24 million yr ago. Further, we show that the Paleocene, Eocene and Oligocene were key periods when diversification of major lineages within Parmeliaceae occurred, with subsequent radiations occurring primarily during the Oligocene and Miocene. Our phylogenetic hypothesis supports the independent origin of lichenicolous fungi associated with climatic shifts at the Oligocene-Miocene boundary. Moreover, diversification bursts at different times may be crucial factors driving the diversification of Parmeliaceae. Additionally, our study provides novel insight into evolutionary relationships in this large and diverse family of lichen-forming ascomycetes.
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9.
  • El Albani, Abderrazak, et al. (författare)
  • The 2.1 Ga old Francevillian biota: biogenicity, taphonomy and biodiversity.
  • 2014
  • Ingår i: PLoS ONE. - 1932-6203. ; 9:6:e99438, s. 1-18
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The Paleoproterozoic Era witnessed crucial steps in the evolution of Earth’s surface environments following the first appreciable rise of free atmospheric oxygen concentrations ~2.3 to 2.1 Ga ago, and concomitant shallow ocean oxygenation. While most sedimentary successions deposited during this time interval have experienced thermal overprinting from burial diagenesis and metamorphism, the ca. 2.1 Ga black shales of the Francevillian B Formation (FB2) cropping out in southeastern Gabon have not. The Francevillian Formation contains centimeter-sized structures interpreted as organized and spatially discrete populations of colonial organisms living in an oxygenated marine ecosystem. Here, new material from the FB2 black shales is presented and analyzed to further explore its biogenicity and taphonomy. Our extended record comprises variably sized, shaped, and structured pyritized macrofossils of lobate, elongated, and rodshaped morphologies as well as abundant non-pyritized disk-shaped macrofossils and organic-walled acritarchs. Combined microtomography, geochemistry, and sedimentary analysis suggest a biota fossilized during early diagenesis. The emergence of this biota follows a rise in atmospheric oxygen, which is consistent with the idea that surface oxygenation allowed the evolution and ecological expansion of complex megascopic life.
10.
  • Fontorbe, Guillaume, et al. (författare)
  • A silicon depleted North Atlantic since the Palaeogene : : Evidence from sponge and radiolarian silicon isotopes
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: Earth and Planetary Science Letters. - Elsevier. - 0012-821X. ; 453, s. 67-77
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Despite being one of Earth's major geochemical cycles, the evolution of the silicon cycle has received little attention and changes in oceanic dissolved silica (DSi) concentration through geologic time remain poorly constrained. Silicon isotope ratios (expressed as δ30Si) in marine microfossils are becoming increasingly recognised for their ability to provide insight into silicon cycling. In particular, the δ30Si of siliceous sponge spicules has been demonstrated to be a useful proxy for past DSi concentrations. We analysed δ30Si in radiolarian tests and sponge spicules from the Blake Nose Palaeoceanographic Transect (ODP Leg 171B) spanning the Palaeocene–Eocene (ca. 60–30 Ma). Our δ30Si results range from +0.32 to +1.67‰ and −0.48 to +0.63‰ for the radiolarian and sponge records, respectively. Using an established relationship between ambient dissolved Si (DSi) concentrations and the magnitude of silicon isotope fractionation in siliceous sponges, we demonstrate that the Western North Atlantic was DSi deplete during the Palaeocene–Eocene throughout the water column, a conclusion that is robust to a range of assumptions and uncertainties. These data can constitute constraints on reconstructions of past-ocean circulation. Previous work has suggested ocean DSi concentrations were higher than modern ocean concentrations prior to the Cenozoic and has posited a drawdown during the Early Palaeogene due to the evolutionary expansion of diatoms. Our results challenge such an interpretation. We suggest here that if such a global decrease in oceanic DSi concentrations occurred, it must predate 60 Ma.
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