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Sökning: LAR1:lu > Karlstads universitet

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  • Ahlgren, Johan, et al. (författare)
  • Individual boldness is linked to protective shell shape in aquatic snails.
  • 2015
  • Ingår i: Biology Letters. - Royal Society. - 1744-9561. ; 11:4
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The existence of consistent individual differences in behaviour ('animal personality') has been well documented in recent years. However, how such individual variation in behaviour is maintained over evolutionary time is an ongoing conundrum. A well-studied axis of animal personality is individual variation along a bold-shy continuum, where individuals differ consistently in their propensity to take risks. A predation-risk cost to boldness is often assumed, but also that the reproductive benefits associated with boldness lead to equivalent fitness outcomes between bold and shy individuals over a lifetime. However, an alternative or complementary explanation may be that bold individuals phenotypically compensate for their risky lifestyle to reduce predation costs, for instance by investing in more pronounced morphological defences. Here, we investigate the 'phenotypic compensation' hypothesis, i.e. that bold individuals exhibit more pronounced anti-predator defences than shy individuals, by relating shell shape in the aquatic snail Radix balthica to an index of individual boldness. Our analyses find a strong relationship between risk-taking propensity and shell shape in this species, with bolder individuals exhibiting a more defended shell shape than shy individuals. We suggest that this supports the 'phenotypic compensation' hypothesis and sheds light on a previously poorly studied mechanism to promote the maintenance of personality variation among animals.
  • Ahmed, S., et al. (författare)
  • MIMO Frequency Selective Channels with Multiple Frequency Offsets: Estimation and Detection Techniques
  • 2005
  • Ingår i: IEE Proceedings - Communications. - IEEE--Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Inc.. - 1350-2425. ; 152:4, s. 489-494
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Channel gains and frequency offsets are estimated in a multiple input and multiple output (MIMO) scenario, allowing for more than one path between the transmit and the receive antennas, with each path possibly having a different frequency offset. Such a scenario may arise due to Doppler shift associated with various multipaths. Here, the general case is examined and an approximate maximum likelihood (AML) estimator is derived by exploiting the correlation property of the pilot signal. The AM L estimator can be written as the sum of n(T)L one-dimensional maximisations, where n(T) is the number of transmit antennas and L is the total number of paths. The proposed estimator is validated by comparing the results with the Cramer-Rao lower bound (CRLB). Further, a minimum mean square error recursive (MMSER) equaliser is proposed for the considered scenario. Finally, the performance of the MMSER equaliser is compared with the equaliser not accounting for frequency offsets.
  • Almasri, Abdullah (författare)
  • Testing for Periodicity and Trend in Long-Memory Processes
  • 2003
  • Doktorsavhandling (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • Popular Abstract in Swedish Avhandlingen handlar om tes av periodicitet och trend inom långminne-processer. Med hjälp av diskret wavelet transform och periodogram presenteras vi två test för periodicitet och tre test för trend. Vi utvärderar vår test samt studerar deras egenskaper delvis genom att använda oss av datorintensiva metoder såsom Monte Carlo och delvis genom att jämföra dem med andra likartade kända metoder som Fisher’s test och Siegel’s test. Avhandlingen avslutas med praktiska tillämpningar på verkliga data.
  • Alty, S., et al. (författare)
  • Computationally Efficient Time-Varying ISAR Imaging
  • 2006
  • Ingår i: 2006 IEEE International Conference on Acoustics Speech and Signal Processing Proceedings. - IEEE--Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Inc.. - 1520-6149. ; 3, s. 181-184
  • Konferensbidrag (refereegranskat)abstract
    • By exploiting the relative motion between the target and the radar, high-resolution images of moving targets can be produced using inverse synthetic aperture radar (ISAR). Recent studies have shown that accurate ISAR images can be obtained using the non-parametric high-resolution Capon and APES spectral estimators. In this paper, we propose a computationally efficient time-updating of the two-dimensional (2-D) Capon and APES spectral estimators using their inherent time-varying displacement structures. Numerical simulations indicate that the proposed implementation offers a significant reduction in computational complexity as compared to other recent implementations
  • Alty, S. R., et al. (författare)
  • Cardiovascular Disease Prediction using Support Vector Machines
  • 2003
  • Ingår i: Proceedings of the 46th International Midwest Symposium on Circuits and Systems. - IEEE--Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Inc.. - 0 7803 8294 3 ; 1, s. 376-379
  • Konferensbidrag (refereegranskat)abstract
    • A method for rapidly assessing a patient's arterial stiffness and hence risk of developing cardiovascular disease (CVD) without resorting to laborious blood tests is presented. Simple measurement of a patient's volume pulse measured at the finger-tip (digital volume pulse) using an infrared light absorption detector placed on the index finger is sufficient to predict their CVD risk. Suitable features are extracted from the waveform and a support vector machine (SVM) classifier has been found to make accurate (>85%) prediction of high or low arterial stiffness as indicated by the aortal pulse wave velocity (PWV). This would otherwise require an extensive and time consuming procedure, and hence this new method is promising as a tool to help health professionals prevent cardiovascular diseases
  • Alty, S. R., et al. (författare)
  • Efficient implementation of the time-recursive Capon and APES spectral estimators
  • 2004
  • Ingår i: EUSIPCO 2004. - 3-200-00165-8 ; s. 1269-1272
  • Konferensbidrag (refereegranskat)abstract
    • A method for the computationally efficient sliding window time-updating of the Capon and APES spectral estimators based on the time-variant displacement structure of the data covariance matrix is presented. The proposed algorithm forms a natural extension of the computationally most efficient algorithm to date, and offers a significant computationalgain as compared to the computational complexity associated with the batch re-evaluation of the spectral estimates for each time-update.
  • Alvarez, Pilar, et al. (författare)
  • De sobremesa 1887-1896. José Asunción Silva:El poeta novelista
  • 2004
  • Doktorsavhandling (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • <br/><br/>José Asunción Silva is a Colombian poet most known for having renewed the metrics in Spanish poetry during the 19th century. José Asunción Silva's only novel, De sobremesa 1887-1896 [After dinner, 1887-1896] written in 1896 is a significant and representative modernist novel in the tradition of Latin-American modernismo.<br/><br/><br/><br/>Silvas novel has been considered as a structureless, narratively disordered and chaotic text by many literary critics since its first publication in 1925. The text presents a great deal of fragmentation on the surface level: the story is presented by means of temporal discontinuity and multiple narrative voices and its thematic richness seems to be endless. The characters reveal multiple perspectives and a plurality of discourses.<br/><br/><br/><br/>This dissertation determines and analyzes the formal and thematic aspects of the text that underlie its apparently disordered structure. The analysis focuses on the study of the referentiality of the text and some of its narrative components. It examines how the different fragments of the story, which are apparently neither logically nor thematically ordered on the surface level, are associated and integrated in the novel as a whole.<br/><br/><br/><br/>Silva as a novelist makes use of some of the conventions of poetry and the techniques he applied to his poems. Contrast, association, assimilation and parallelisms are ways of creating new organizational forms of expressions in his prose work. The protagonist of De sobremesa, himself a poet, also plays the role of author, narrator, narratee and reader of his own prose work, his personal diary. This is a very particular feature in the context of Latin-American modernist novels written between 1882- 1902. The study analyzes the different roles of the character in the story to prove that the sense of unity is built by centring the text technically and thematically on the protagonist in its different roles. Silva makes the protagonist the point of convergence of the whole text.<br/><br/><br/><br/>This dissertation suggests that there is an organized structure underlying the apparent disorder and incoherence of the text. The basis for Silvas text is diversity and the different where even the smallest parts prove to correspond with a bigger one. For a text of the 19th century, this is an innovative and experimental way of writing that seeks to create unity out of disorder and fragmentation.
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