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Sökning: LAR1:lu > Försvarshögskolan

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1.
  • Agrell, Wilhelm (författare)
  • Den svarta svanen och dess motståndare Förvarningsaspekter på attentaten i Oslo och på Utøya 22 juli 2011
  • 2013
  • Rapport (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • Terrorattentaten i Oslo och på Utøya den 22 juli 2011 är inte bara en av de mest omskakande händelserna i samtida norsk och nordisk historia. Det är också en akut situation som ställde samhällets krishanteringsförmåga på prov över ett brett och delvis oförutsett spektrum. Många lärdomar framstod som mer eller mindre uppenbara, andra som diffusare och svårare att omsätta i förändringsåtgärder. Ett sådant område var den avsaknad av varning som tvingade samhällets krishanteringssystem att agera utan någon förberedelsetid.Var 22 juli en i raden av stora underrättelse- och varningsmisslyckanden? Eller var i själva verket Anders Behring Breivik en exponent för en i grunden förändrad säkerhetspolitisk karta där hoten inte längre låter sig kategoriseras, kartläggas och bedömas utan uppstår ur oöverblickbara processen på samhälls- och individnivå? I denna rapport från Centrum för asymmetriska hot- och terrorismstudier (CATS) vid Försvarshögskolan undersöker Wilhelm Agrell varningsdimensionen i händelseförloppet före och under terrorattentatet och diskuterar de övergripande och allmänt tillämpbara slutsatser som kan dras från de sätt på vilket frågor kring hotbilder och varning hanterades. Arbetet med rapporten är en del av det projekt kring underrättelsestudier som finansieras av Myndigheten för samhällsskydd och beredskap (MSB).
2.
  • Agrell, Wilhelm (författare)
  • The Black Swan and Its Opponents : Early Warning Aspects of the Norway Attacks on 22 July 2011
  • 2013
  • Rapport (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • The Norway attacks on 22 July 2011 were not only one of the most horrific events in modern Norwegian and Scandinavian history but also a critical situation that tested Norwegian society's crisis management capability over a broad and somewhat unforeseen spectrum. Many of the lessons were more or less obvious, others more diffuse and more difficult to translate into reforms. One such area was the lack of warning, which resulted in Norwegian society's crisis management system having to improvise. Was 22 July 2011 one of a series of major intelligence and warning failures? Or was Anders Behring Breivik, in actual fact, an exponent of fundamentally redrawing the security map, where threats no longer allow themselves to be categorized, mapped, and evaluated, but arise from unforeseen societal and individual processes? In this report by the Swedish National Defence College's Center for Asymmetric Threat Studies (CATS), Wilhelm Agrell examines the warning dimension in the course of events before and during the terror attacks and discusses the overall, universally applicable conclusions that can be drawn from how questions about threat scenarios and warning are handled. The work on this report is part of the Intelligence Studies Project financed by the Swedish Civil Contingencies Agency. Wilhelm Agrell is professor of intelligence analysis at Lund University and a visiting professor at the Swedish National Defence College. He has written a number of books on Swedish security policy and intelligence matters, including Essence of Assessment: Methods and Problems of Intelligence Analysis, published by CATS in 2012.
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3.
  • Brown, Christer, et al. (författare)
  • A plan for (certain) failure : possibilities for and challenges of more realistic emergency plans
  • 2008
  • Ingår i: International Journal of Emergency Management. - Inderscience. - 1471-4825. ; 5:3/4, s. 292-310
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Calls for more robust societal emergency management capacities have grown shriller as the range of societal vulnerabilities widens. The development of workable plans is recognised as one means to increase capacity. However, scepticism persists that plans serve any significant function in guiding organisational emergency management. Plans nevertheless remain a de facto requirement for most organisations. Plans serve to reassure the organisations themselves, policy makers and the public that they are capable of managing emergencies. A more ‘realistic’ approach to plan development should be considered, which accounts for both the unpredictable nature of critical incidents and the possibility that organisational incapability makes it hard to manage. The authors argue that plans might serve to raise organisational and interorganisational self-awareness concerning potential vulnerabilities. If nothing else, plans serve a palliative function and, for that reason, are likely ‘here to stay’. As long as plans require significant resources to be developed and maintained, might they not be as relevant as possible to those organisations they are intended to guide? Various ways forward in the development of more ‘realistic’ plans which provide guidance in the face of critical incidents, but even partial if not complete organisational failure are suggested.
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4.
  • Falkheimer, Jesper, et al. (författare)
  • Depoliticizing terror : The news framing of the terrorist attacks in Norway, 22 July 2011
  • 2015
  • Ingår i: Media, War & Conflict. - SAGE Publications. - 1750-6352. ; 8:1, s. 70-85
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • This article analyzes how the Norwegian news media framed the terrorist attacks in Oslo and the island of Utöya, which killed 77 mainly young people on 22 July 2011. Did the news media favour or counteract the propaganda of the terrorist? After discussing earlier research about terrorism and media and presenting theories on news framing, results from a content analysis of 924 news articles in two major Norwegian newspapers during the first two weeks after the attacks are analyzed. The coverage of the attacks is found to be very descriptive, focused on the perpetrator as an individual, giving him questionable political exposure and not analyzing reasons and consequences on a political-societal level. The news framing functioned as a way of depoliticizing the terror attacks by portraying the attack as conducted by a lone lunatic in contrast to a politically motivated terrorist linked to right-wing extremism.
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5.
  • Lindholm, Kristina, et al. (författare)
  • Crisis Communication as a Multilevel Game: The Muhammad Cartoons from a Crisis Diplomacy Perspective
  • 2011
  • Ingår i: The International Journal of Press/Politics. - SAGE Publications. - 1940-1620. ; 16:2, s. 254-271
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The Muhammad cartoon crisis in 2005 provides an illustrative example of how crises travel across geographical boundaries, in this case, from a national newspaper into a full-fledged public diplomacy crisis at the international level. From a crisis management perspective, a multilevel setting poses a real challenge to actors trying to contain the situation at hand. Likewise, the multilevel nature of a crisis poses a challenge to crisis communication theories, which have traditionally focused on rhetorical strategies in single organizational crises. As a response, this article proposes a framework for examining crisis communication based on how actors' framing impact the perceptions of arenas, stakeholders, and communication strategies.
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6.
  • Narby, Petter (författare)
  • Time of Crisis: Order, Politics, Temporality
  • 2014
  • Doktorsavhandling (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • Kriser är allmänna och problematiska inslag i samtida politik. Förstådd som en punkt i tiden då ordningen är underminerad av oordning och förändring medför krisen en normativ förskjutning som möjliggör extraordinära åtgärder och att krisen avgränsas från det normala, att det oförutsägbara kan avgränsas till krisen och det som görs i kriser kan anses sakna konsekvenser för normaliteten. Avhandlingen undersöker krisbegreppet i ett modernt begreppskomplex av ordning, politik och temporalitet och analyserar de politiska möjligheter och omöjligheter det öppnar och stänger. Med särskilt fokus på krisens temporalitet argumenterar avhandlingen att krisbegreppet intar en gränsposition i komplexet som en Derrideansk obestämbarhet, att det stabiliserar och underminerar de andra begreppen och relationerna mellan dem. Krisbegreppet reflekterar och konstituerar tidsliga lösningar på avvägningar mellan ordning och oordning, politik som norm och beslut och tid som kontinuitet och nu. Krisbegreppet knyter också dessa begrepp till varandra, vilket medför att en utgångspunkt i dualismerna ordning och oordning, norm och beslut eller kontinuitet och nu också konstituerar det tidsliga krisproblemet. I detta avseende är kriskomplexet satt i förbindelse med förståelser av modernitet och det gör det logiskt att anta att moderniteten började med en kris och kommer att sluta med en kris och att den, därför, är i konstant kris. Men dessa antaganden, och åberopande av kriser, förlitar sig på krisens begreppskomplex och återskapar dess fundament. Studien gör inga anspråk på att röra sig bortom, men undersöker de antaganden som ligger till grund för sådana strävanden, och hur spänningar och paradoxer öppnar möjligheter inom och bortom detta system. Problemet etableras genom en analys av den grekiska skuldkrisen. Detta följs av läsningar av centrala teoretiska texter i tre kapitel som fungerar både kumulativt och komplementärt. De undersöker (1) vad som menas med att tala om ett modernt krisbegrepp och moderniteten som en tidslig lösning på ordning och oordning, (2) vad som menas med att tala om politik under sådana förutsättningar och (3) lockelsen och problemen i att försöka röra sig bortom det studerade begreppskomplexet.
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8.
  • Olsson, Eva-Karin, et al. (författare)
  • Communicating Terror: Selecting, Reinforcing and Matching Frames in Connection to the Attacks in Norway on July 22, 2011
  • 2015
  • Ingår i: Offentlig Förvaltning. Scandinavian Journal of Public Administration. - Förvaltningshögskolan tillsammans med författarna. - 2000-8058. ; 19:1, s. 3-22
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • In essence, terror attacks are communicative events. From the perspective of political leaders, the challenge is to make sense of the event by explaining what has happened, who is behind the attack, what is the most appropriate response, and how to move forward. Adding to the difficulties is the fact that leaders have to communicate in a highly mediated environment. In this article, we explore the Norwegian government’s crisis communication in the terrorist attacks in Oslo and on the island of Utöya on July 22, 2011. We do so by applying a model of crisis framing. According to the model, political leaders have to be able to select appropriate frames that reinforce each other and match the media coverage. The study proved managerial, responsibility and cultural congruence frames to be central. Moreover, the study demonstrated how the crisis produced a certain type of news coverage characterized by high levels of descriptive journalism, which, in combination with issue and episodic framing, supported the government’s communication strategy.
9.
  • Olsson, Eva-Karin, et al. (författare)
  • Media Coverage Crisis Exploitation Characteristics: A Case Comparison Study
  • 2015
  • Ingår i: Journal of Public Relations Research. - Routledge. - 1062-726X. ; 27:2, s. 158-174
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • If well managed, crises do not only pose a threat to political actors but also provide opportunities to show action, strengthening credibility and launching new policies. Within the field of crisis communication, research has primarily taken an interest in the rhetorical strategies of actors when explaining successes or failures. In this article, we examine key characteristics of what we refer to as crisis exploitation coverage in the news media. We do so based on a comparative quantitative study of 3 crisis cases (terror, floods, and financial crisis) selected due to their differences in journalistic routines and preparedness. The results of the study revealed that the similarities in the cases were more pronounced than their differences. All three cases showed high levels of descriptive journalism and issue framing in combination with unbalanced reporting-characteristics that were all favorable toward the governmental actors in charge of managing the crisis.
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10.
  • Pettersson, Ulrica (författare)
  • Improving Incident Reports in the Swedish Armed Forces
  • 2013
  • Doktorsavhandling (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • It is generally maintained that learning should be a part of the daily routines of many organizations; this is often referred to as lesson learned processes. The purpose of organizational learning is to foster improvements that seek to both reduce incidents and accidents and reduce their consequences when they nevertheless happen. Safety work is widespread among many organizations, e.g. aviation, hospitals, process industry, fire departments and several armed forces. A considerable part of safety work involves accident prevention, and aims to investigate why and how previous accidents and incidents happened, in order to learn how to avoid them, or minimize losses when they do occur. The collection of information after incidents represents one of the first steps in a lessons learned process, and the result is crucial for further work. Unfortunately, incident reports often tend to be unfocused (they represent a very wide area of issues) and, for that reason, cannot be clustered. They also frequently lack by analysts required information. The overall research objective in this thesis was to develop a report structure that enables the individuals who participated in or observed an incident to provide more information that is relevant about that incident. The first research question seeks to identify whether the Swedish Armed Forces face the kinds of problems that have been identified in earlier research on attempts to learn from accidents and incidents. The second and third research questions aim to ascertain whether the scope and quality of collected information in incident reports can be improved and if the number of incident reports can be increased. The results agree with earlier research and show that many of the problems that are common in other organizations (e.g. aviation, hospitals and the process industry) can also be observed and are a reality within the SwAF. In addition, the results showed that both scope and quality of collected information can be influenced. Group reporting using a consensus process neither had an appreciable effect on the quality of collected information, nor on the quantity of the reports. On the other hand, the new reporting form, which was based on interview and questionnaire methodology, and to some extent witness psychology, significantly improved the quality of the information collected after incidents. The new form proved to be superior, regardless of the character and context of the incidents. The information collected was also in accordance with what had actually happened and, finally, the form proved to be useful when various military “real world” incidents were reported. Finally, the results also provide new insights into the problems and possibilities associated with acquiring useful incident reports. The problem seems not only to be that people may be unwilling to report incidents that they have participated in or witnessed; it is also that they may be unable to do so. Consequently, it may not be sufficient to change the culture of the organization into a learning culture to receive by analysts required information. It is also necessary to help people report what they actually know by means of an improved report structure.
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