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Sökning: LAR1:lu > Lantbruksvetenskap

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  • Lehrman, Anna, et al. (författare)
  • Framtidens mat - om husdjursavel och växtförädling
  • 2014
  • Bok (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • Du har kanske inte funderat över varför tomater ser ut som de gör, varför våra husdjur är så lugna och vänliga, eller hur det är möjligt att köpa en vattenmelon utan kärnor. Trots att växtförädling och djuravel har format det mesta vi äter, är det få människor som är medvetna om vilka vetenskapliga upptäckter och vilket omfattande arbete som ligger bakom maten vi lägger på våra tallrikar. Med den här boken vill vi ge en översikt över domesticeringens och förädlingens bakgrund, från jordbrukets början för mer än 10 000 år sedan till dagens molekylära arbete. Vi beskriver grunderna för genernas strukturer och funktioner, varför och hur olika avels- och förädlingsmetoder används och ger en inblick i lagstiftningen kring användning av genteknik i Sverige och EU. Vi ger också en överblick över olika produkter som tagits fram genom genetisk modifiering (GM) och en sammanfattning av de ekonomiska konsekvenserna av GM-grödor. Vidare diskuterar vi etiska frågor som rör avel och förädling i allmänhet och genetisk modifiering i synnerhet.
  • Berggren Kleja, Dan, et al. (författare)
  • Pools and fluxes of carbon in three Norway spruce ecosystems along a climatic gradient in Sweden
  • 2008
  • Ingår i: Biogeochemistry. - Springer. - 1573-515X. ; 89:1, s. 7-25
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • This paper presents an integrated analysis of organic carbon (C) pools in soils and vegetation, within-ecosystem fluxes and net ecosystem exchange (NEE) in three 40-year old Norway spruce stands along a north-south climatic gradient in Sweden, measured 2001-2004. A process-orientated ecosystem model (CoupModel), previously parameterised on a regional dataset, was used for the analysis. Pools of soil organic carbon (SOC) and tree growth rates were highest at the southernmost site (1.6 and 2.0-fold, respectively). Tree litter production (litterfall and root litter) was also highest in the south, with about half coming from fine roots (< 1 mm) at all sites. However, when the litter input from the forest floor vegetation was included, the difference in total litter input rate between the sites almost disappeared (190-233 g C m(-2) year(-1)). We propose that a higher N deposition and N availability in the south result in a slower turnover of soil organic matter than in the north. This effect seems to overshadow the effect of temperature. At the southern site, 19% of the total litter input to the O horizon was leached to the mineral soil as dissolved organic carbon, while at the two northern sites the corresponding figure was approx. 9%. The CoupModel accurately described general C cycling behaviour in these ecosystems, reproducing the differences between north and south. The simulated changes in SOC pools during the measurement period were small, ranging from -8 g C m(-2) year(-1) in the north to +9 g C m(-2) year(-1) in the south. In contrast, NEE and tree growth measurements at the northernmost site suggest that the soil lost about 90 g C m(-2) year(-1).
  • Oborn, I., et al. (författare)
  • A systems approach to assess farm-scale nutrient and trace element dynamics: A case study at the Ojebyn dairy farm
  • 2005
  • Ingår i: Ambio. - Springer. - 0044-7447. ; 34:4, s. 301-310
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • A systems analysis approach was used to assess farmscale nutrient and trace element sustainability by combining full-scale field experiments with specific studies of nutrient release from mineral weathering and trace-element cycling. At the Ojebyn dairy farm in northern Sweden, a farm-scale case study including phosphorus (P), potassium (K), and zinc (Zn) was run to compare organic and conventional agricultural management practices. By combining different element-balance approaches (at farmgate, barn, and field scales) and further adapting these to the FARMFLOW model, we were able to combine mass flows and pools within the subsystems and establish links between subsystems in order to make farm-scale predictions. It was found that internal element flows on the farm are large and that there are farm internal sources (Zn) and loss terms (K). The approaches developed and tested at the Ojebyn farm are promising and considered generally adaptable to any farm.
  • Svensson, Magnus, et al. (författare)
  • Bayesian calibration of a model describing carbon, water and heat fluxes for a Swedish boreal forest stand
  • 2008
  • Ingår i: Ecological Modelling. - Elsevier. - 0304-3800. ; 213:3-4, s. 331-344
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • This study quantified major fluxes of carbon (C), heat and water, including uncertainty estimates, in a boreal forest in northern Sweden, using a process-based model (Coup-Model) and Bayesian calibration methodology. Coupled C, water and heat fluxes were described together with estimated uncertainties for all major components of the simulated C budget. Simulated mean gross primary production was 641 +/- 74 gC m(-2) yr(-1), total ecosystem respiration 570 +/- 55 gC m(-2)yr(-1) and net ecosystem productivity 71 +/- 37gCm(-2)yr(-1). Most high-resolution measurements were well described but some interesting exceptions arose between model and measurements, e.g. latent heat flux was overestimated and field layer (understory) root litter production underestimated. Bayesian calibration reduced the assumed prior parameter ranges in 30 of 33 parameters, thus reducing the uncertainty in the estimates. There was a high degree of couplings between different sub-models and processes in the model, highlighting the importance of considering parameters not as singularities but in clusters.
  • Nilsson, Kerstin (författare)
  • Why work beyond 65? Discourse on the decision to continue working or retire early
  • 2012
  • Ingår i: Nordic Journal of Working Life Studies. - Nordic Journal of Working Life Studies. - 2245-0157. ; 2(3), s. 7-28
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • This study examined retirement decisions among people who had left working life before 65 years of age and those working beyond 65 years in an extended working life. The results were used to make a model about their considerations, weighting and decision making, and important factors and themes in working beyond 65 years of age or retiring before 65. The interviewees seemed to have considered and weighed their own best life balance to finally result in their identity as (older) worker or early retiree. They included their work situation and social surroundings in descriptions of their planning and retirement decision making. The most important themes in these descriptions were (i) personal health and well-being; (ii) personal finances; (iii) possibilities for social inclusion; and (iv) possibilities for self-crediting by meaningful activities. Those identifying themselves as older workers had possibilities in their life situation to manage their work in relation to their functional ageing and health situation; felt important to others and socially included in the workplace; and did meaningful tasks and felt empowered in their working life. Those who had left the working life before 65 years of age describe a better possibility to this outside the working life and left as soon as they acquire a sufficient pension. The results and model presented here on how people perceive their identity as older worker or early retiree will hopefully contribute to understanding retirement planning and to the formulation of strategies to extend working life.
  • Pinzke, Stefan, et al. (författare)
  • Farm tractors on Swedish public roads - age-related perspectives on police reported incidents and injuries
  • 2014
  • Ingår i: Work: A Journal of Prevention, Assessment & Rehabilitation. - IOS Press. - 1875-9270. ; 49:1, s. 39-49
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BACKGROUND: Agriculture consistently ranks as one of the highest risk industries in North America and Europe. In addition to vehicle injuries and other injuries that occur on farms, farm vehicle drivers are also involved in collisions involving tractors and other slow-moving vehicles (SMVs) on public roads. These collisions often lead to injuries among farmers, family members, farm workers, and other road users. OBJECTIVE: To conduct a demographic analysis of road traffic incidents involving tractors in Sweden during the time period 1992-2009, with special consideration of how incidents vary with driver age. METHODS: Statistics from 2,305 police reports describing tractor-related road traffic incidents in Sweden in 1992-2009 were analysed with respect to driver age, type of incident, severity of injury, type of road user and other circumstances at the accident site. RESULTS: Tractors of all kinds were involved in 128 road traffic incidents annually, with 7 people killed, 44 seriously injured and 143 suffering minor injuries each year. The annual number of fatalities represented 1.2% of all Swedish road fatalities. Most road traffic incidents with farm tractors involved people aged 25-55 years (mean 45 years). However, most farm tractor drivers killed or injured belonged to younger or older age groups. Drivers aged 12-16 years were over-represented in tractor incidents with no other vehicle involved. Older tractor drivers (> 55 years) were more often involved in incidents with passenger vehicles on entering traffic flows. The youngest tractor drivers aged 12-16 years were more often involved in road traffic incidents during school holidays, and both youngest and oldest drivers (> 65 years) during harvest time. CONCLUSIONS: Sweden has an ageing fleet of tractors, so increased attention to vehicle maintenance is needed to improve road safety. The over-representation of young children in tractor incidents suggests that it is questionable whether they should be allowed to operate farm vehicles. Farm vehicle drivers suffering the inevitable effects of ageing need increase their awareness of added risks. As road traffic incidents with tractors often involve private vehicles, creating awareness among the public of slow-moving farm vehicles is essential for improving overall road safety.
  • Wardle, David A., et al. (författare)
  • Above-ground and below-ground responses to long-term nutrient addition across a retrogressive chronosequence
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: Journal of Ecology. - 0022-0477. ; 104:2, s. 545-560
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • There is much interest in understanding ecosystem responses to local-scale soil fertility variation, which has often been studied using retrogressive chronosequences that span thousands of years and show declining fertility and plant productivity over time. There have been few attempts to experimentally test how plant nutrient limitation changes during retrogression.We studied a well-characterized system of 30 forested lake islands in northern Sweden that collectively represent a 5350-year post-fire retrogressive chronosequence, with fertility and productivity decreasing as time since fire increases. For each island, we set up four plots on understorey vegetation, each subjected to a different fertilizer treatment over 6 years: no additions, nitrogen (N) only, phosphorus (P) only and N + P.We found that both N and P additions reduced feather moss and thus total plant biomass. Meanwhile, the three dominant vascular plant species showed contrasting biomass responses, but similar responses of foliar nutrient concentrations to nutrient additions. Fertilization reduced most microbial groups and altered CO2 fluxes, most likely through feather moss reduction. Against expectations, the majority of interactive effects of N and P were antagonistic.Changes in effects of nutrient additions during retrogression were usually modest.Empetrum hermaphroditum biomass was increasingly promoted by P and N + P addition, while vascular plant N-to-P ratios were increasingly reduced by P addition, indicating increasing plant limitation by nutrients (notably P) during retrogression. Below-ground, positive effects of N addition on soil mineral N increased, while negative effects of N addition on soil fungi decreased during retrogression; no other below-ground effects of fertilization changed along the gradient.Synthesis. Our results show that forest understorey communities on islands of different fire history and thus stages of retrogression show relatively modest differences in how they respond to nutrient addition despite large changes in ecosystem productivity and soil fertility, probably because of high species turnover and adaptation of communities to infertile conditions. While increased nutrient availability (as expected through global change) may have important ecological consequences, these effects are likely, especially below-ground, to be rather similar across ecosystems that differ greatly in nutrient availability and productivity.
  • Gjerris, M., et al. (författare)
  • The Price of Responsibility: Ethics of Animal Husbandry in a Time of Climate Change
  • 2011
  • Ingår i: Journal of Agricultural and Environmental Ethics. - Springer. - 1187-7863. ; 24:4, s. 331-350
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • This paper examines the challenges that climate change raises for animal agriculture and discusses the contributions that may come from a virtue ethics based approach. Two scenarios of the future role of animals in farming are set forth and discussed in terms of their ethical implications. The paper argues that when trying to tackle both climate and animal welfare issues in farming, proposals that call for a reorientation of our ethics and technology must first and foremost consider the values that drive current livestock production. This paper sets forth and discusses the broader societal values implicit in livestock production. We suggest that a virtues approach would improve our thinking and practice regarding animal agriculture, facilitating a move from livestock production to animal husbandry. This change in animal agriculture in a time of climate change would stress virtues such as attentiveness, responsibility, competence, and responsiveness as central elements in any mitigation or adaptation program.
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