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1.
  • Carling, Kenneth, et al. (författare)
  • Out-of-town shopping and its induced CO2-emissions
  • 2013
  • Ingår i: Journal of Retailing and Consumer Services. - Elsevier. - 0969-6989. ; 20:4, s. 382-388
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Planning policies in several European countries have aimed at hindering the expansion of out-of-town shopping centers. One argument for this is concern for the increase in transport and a resulting increase in environmental externalities such as CO2-emissions. This concern is weakly founded in science as few studies have attempted to measure CO2-emissions of shopping trips as a function of the location of the shopping centers. In this paper we conduct a counter-factual analysis comparing downtown, edge-of-town and out-of-town shopping. In this comparison we use GPS to track 250 consumers over a time-span of two months in a Swedish region. The GPS-data enters the Oguchi’s formula to obtain shopping trip-specific CO2-emissions. We find that consumers’ out-of-town shopping would generate an excess of 60 per cent CO2-emissions whereas downtown and edge-of-town shopping centers are comparable.
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2.
  • Daunfeldt, S. -O, et al. (författare)
  • Does Gibrat's law hold for retailing? : Evidence from Sweden
  • 2012
  • Ingår i: Journal of Retailing and Consumer Services. - 0969-6989. ; 19:5, s. 464-469
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Gibrat's Law predicts that firm growth is a purely random effect and therefore should be independent of firm size. The purpose of this paper is to test Gibrat's law within the retail industry, using a novel data-set comprising all surviving Swedish limited liability companies active at some point between 1998 and 2004. Very few studies have previously investigated whether Gibrat's Law seems to hold for retailing, and they are based on highly aggregated data. Our results indicate that Gibrat's Law can be rejected for a large majority of five-digit retail industries in Sweden, since small retail firms tend to grow faster than large ones. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.
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3.
  • Daunfeldt, Sven-Olov, 1970-, et al. (författare)
  • Does Shelf-Labeling of Organic Foods Increase Sales? : Results from a Natural Experiment
  • 2014
  • Ingår i: Journal of Retailing and Consumer Services. - London : Elsevier. - 0969-6989. ; 21:5, s. 804-811
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Can a simple point-of-purchase (POP) shelf-label increase sales of organic foods? We use a random-effects׳, random-coefficients׳ model, including a time adjustment variable, to test data from a natural experiment in a hypermarket in Gävle, Sweden. Our model incorporates both product specific heterogeneity in the effects of labeling and consumer adjustment to the labels over time. We find that the introduction of POP displays leads to an increase in sales of organic coffee and olive oil, but a reduction in sales of organic flour. All targeted products became less price-sensitive. The results reveal that product specific differences have to be accounted for, and in some cases consumers adjusted to labeling over time.
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4.
  • Han, Mengjie, et al. (författare)
  • Comparison and one-stop shopping after big-box retail entry : a spatial difference-in-difference analysis
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: Journal of Retailing and Consumer Services. - 0969-6989. ; 40, s. 175-187
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • This paper empirically measures the potential spillover effects of big-box retail entry on the productivity of incumbent retailers in the entry regions, and investigates whether the effects differ depending on 1) if the entry is in a rural or urban area, and 2) if the incumbent retailers are within retail industries selling substitute or complement goods to those found in IKEA. To identify the IKEA-entry effect, a difference-in-difference model is suitable, but traditionally such estimators neglect the possibility that firms’ sales are determined by a process with spatially interactive responses. If ignored, these responses may cause biased estimates of the IKEA entry effect due to spatial heterogeneity of the treatment effect. One objective of this paper is thus to propose a spatial difference-in-difference estimator accounting for possible spatial spillover effects of IKEA entry. Particular emphasis is placed on the development of a suitable weight matrix accounting for the spatial links between firms, where we allow for local spatial interactions such that the outcome of observed units depends both on their own treatment as well as on the treatment of their neighbors. Our results show that for complementary goods retailers (or one-stop shopping retailers) in Haparanda and Kalmar, productivity increased by 35% and 18%, respectively, due to IKEA entry. No statistically significant effects were found for the entries in Karlstad and Gothenburg, indicating that it is mainly incumbents in smaller entry regions that benefit from IKEA entry. Also, for incumbent retailers selling substitute (or comparison shopping) goods no significant effects were found in any of the entry regions, indicating that it is mainly retailers selling complementary goods that benefit from IKEA entry. Finally, our results also show that ignoring the possibility of spatially correlated treatment effects in the regression models reduces the estimated impact of the IKEA entries in Haparanda and Kalmar on productivity in one-stop shopping retail firms with 3% and 0.1% points, respectively. © 2017 Elsevier Ltd
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