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  • Daunfeldt, S. -O, et al. (författare)
  • Does Gibrat's law hold for retailing? : Evidence from Sweden
  • 2012
  • Ingår i: Journal of Retailing and Consumer Services. - 0969-6989. ; 19:5, s. 464-469
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Gibrat's Law predicts that firm growth is a purely random effect and therefore should be independent of firm size. The purpose of this paper is to test Gibrat's law within the retail industry, using a novel data-set comprising all surviving Swedish limited liability companies active at some point between 1998 and 2004. Very few studies have previously investigated whether Gibrat's Law seems to hold for retailing, and they are based on highly aggregated data. Our results indicate that Gibrat's Law can be rejected for a large majority of five-digit retail industries in Sweden, since small retail firms tend to grow faster than large ones. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.
  • Anselmsson, Johan (författare)
  • Effects of shopping centre re-investments and improvements on sales and visit growth
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: Journal of Retailing and Consumer Services. - Elsevier. - 0969-6989. ; 32, s. 139-150
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • PurposeEstablished shopping centres have in recent years experienced increasing competition due to a steady increase in newer and bigger centres as well as online shopping. How could existing centres compete on such terms?Design/methodology/approachThis analysis is based on interviews with 96 shopping centre managers in charge of malls that existed in 2008 and 2014, about their improvements during a three-year period and the effects on sales and number of visitors from one year before and one year after that period. The investments and improvements are structured and analysed mainly along seven common categories of shopping centre attributes recognised as determinants of customer satisfaction and/or patronage behaviour in existing research.FindingsThe results show significant positive relationships between shopping centres' improvements and the growth in sales as well as visit rates. The effects are, however, more significant for sales than visit growth. The forms of investment that yielded the greatest positive effect are improvements in physical dimensions such as access, atmosphere the retail mix. Increased investments in less physical dimensions such as promotions, entertainment, refreshments and service had little or no effect.Originality/valuePresent studies on centre renovations and improvements are merely case studies or studies of single cases, but this study deals with larger number of cases and long-term effects. In contrast to previous research on shopping centres and the role of satisfaction and patronage, with recommend balance between physical and non-physical aspects, this study highlights the importance of physical capital dimensions.
  • Hjelmgren, Daniel (författare)
  • Creating a compelling brand meaning by orchestrating stories : The case of Scandinavia’s largest department store
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: Journal of Retailing and Consumer Services. - 0969-6989. ; 32, s. 210-217
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The aim of this paper is to explore how a company can create a compelling brand meaning by orchestrating what is said in different points of contact with the brand. A case study of Scandinavia's largest store suggests that, in order to create a compelling brand meaning, a retailer need to manage oral and written stories, as well as stories told by facilities, goods, and services. It is argued that all stories need to be coherent in the sense that they all fit the brand meaning, and that it sometimes may require expansion of the retailer's control boundary. The case study also suggests that reality shows can be important points of contact, very much due to their ability to tell credible stories that can humanize the brand, and that individual employees can constitute important assets in these stories.
  • Parment, Anders (författare)
  • Distribution Strategies for Premium and Volume Brands in Highly Competitive Consumer Markets
  • 2008
  • Ingår i: Journal of Retailing and Consumer Services. - 0969-6989. ; 15:4, s. 250-265
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • This article deals with distribution strategies for volume and premium brands in the automobile industry. Like some other consumer markets, the car market has become subject to substantial overcapacity in the last decade and subject to a pressure to keep costs low, while at the same time manufacturers emphasize immaterial values and attempt to strengthen the brand to get an advantage over competitors. A number of theoretical themes are related to extensive case studies carried out in Sweden, the UK, Germany, Spain and Australia. One hundred and nine interviews were carried out with manufacturers, importers, dealers and industry experts. Theories used in the study emerge from two research traditions. First, perspectives on corporate identity and brand management are applied to distribution channels. Second, theories on channel structure, i.e. the choice of selling through one channel or dual-multi-distribution, solus- and multi-franchising, and channel ownership, i.e. direct and indirect channels are applied. Theories are woven together in a concluding analysis of distribution strategies for volume and premium brands. Some conclusions on the brand's influence on distribution strategies emerge in the study. The findings suggest that while distribution activities may be shared among channel members in a channel selling volume brands, there is a great need for coordination in channels selling premium brands to secure premium values that reflect the brand's raison d'être and justify its price premium. Anchorage in the local market is crucial for motivating the volume brand dealer, and also critical for volume dealers to stay viable and competitive. Identification with the local dealer appears to be crucial in designing distribution strategies for volume brands. A premium brand is less related to the local market: Rather, its competitive advantage is based on strong brand identification and the consumer is likely to be attracted by the image of the premium brand than by the local dealer. Creating a consistent brand experience is thus decisive for premium brands whose content to a great extent is global and goes beyond the influence of local dealers and cultures. Moreover, an understanding of the brand is suggested to be indispensable in analysing push-pull mechanisms. While pull systems are associated with higher channel efficiency, the study suggests that pull systems are unlikely to work for volume brands: high manufacturing overcapacity is beyond the influence of individual manufacturers, thus industry overcapacity forces volume brand manufacturers to push cars to the market. Premium brands, with demand in reasonable balance with supply, may restrict the use of push systems without losing sales volume. © 2007 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
  • Marell, A., et al. (författare)
  • Direct and indirect effects on households’ intentions to replace the old car
  • 2004
  • Ingår i: Journal of Retailing and Consumer Services. - 0969-6989. ; 11:1, s. 1-8
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • With the purpose of testing the hypothesis that households' intentions to replace their old car have a direct negative relationship to its perceived quality ('current level') and a direct positive relationship to their aspirations for a new car ('aspiration level'), a rotating panel of car owners were interviewed every fourth month during 2 years. In this data set the hypothesis received support. In addition the results showed that the age of the car, the total number of miles driven, and the number of anticipated repairs affected the current level, whereas marital status, the number of children, consumer confidence, and environmental concern affected the aspiration level.
  • Friman, Margareta, et al. (författare)
  • Frequency of Negative Critical Incidents and Satisfaction with Public Transport Services. I
  • 2001
  • Ingår i: Journal of Retailing and Consumer Services. - 0969-6989. ; 8:2, s. 95-104
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • A mail survey was conducted to investigate factors affecting public transport users´ satisfaction with the service. The respondents were residents of a metropolitan area of Sweden. A model was proposed and estimated using the maximum-likelihood method available in LISREL VIII. In the model, overall cumulative satisfaction is positively related to attribute-specific cumulative satisfaction which in turn is negatively related to the remembered frequency of negative critical incidents. In addition, measurement models indicated that both attribute-specific satisfaction and the frequency of negative critical incidents are related to treatment by employee, reliability of service, simplicity of information, and design.
  • Otterbring, Tobias, et al. (författare)
  • Eye-tracking customers' visual attention in the wild : Dynamic gaze behavior moderates the effect of store familiarity on navigational fluency
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: Journal of Retailing and Consumer Services. - 0969-6989. ; 28, s. 165-170
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • A retail store is a multi-sensory environment filled with messages to tempt customers into making unplanned purchases. The purpose of this field study was to examine the interplay between three factors claimed to precede and influence unplanned purchases: store familiarity, visual attention, and navigational fluency (the subjective ease of navigating). Eye-tracking recordings and post-study questionnaires from 100 grocery store shoppers showed that store familiarity was positively associated with navigational fluency. However, customers' levels of dynamic gaze behavior (a frequent, widely distributed viewing pattern) moderated this effect. Dynamic gaze behavior significantly predicted navigational fluency among customers with low and moderate store familiarity, but not among customers familiar with the store. These findings challenge the formerly held assumption that store familiarity automatically implies navigational ease, and store unfamiliarity implies navigational difficulty. The results have implications for navigational aspects in stores. (C) 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
  • Andersson K, Pernille, et al. (författare)
  • The effect of frontline employees' personal self-disclosure on consumers' encounter experience
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: Journal of Retailing and Consumer Services. - 0969-6989. ; 30:May, s. 40-49
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The purpose of this paper is to investigate how frontline employee self-disclosure influences consumers’ reciprocal behavior. To investigate the effects of frontline employee self-disclosure, two experiments were conducted with a total sample of 475 participants. The results show that when frontline employees disclose personal information in one-time encounters, they are perceived as less competent and more superficial. The results also show that self-disclosure negatively affects reciprocal behavior, but that this is mediated through liking, competence, superficiality, and satisfaction. These findings suggest that it is not always beneficial for employees to use self-disclosure as a strategy for garnering a consumer's trust or satisfaction, which counters previous research that suggest that disclosure of personal information is a good way to positively influence consumers in the retail environment.
  • Anselmsson, Johan, et al. (författare)
  • The penetration of retailer brands and the impact on consumer prices - A study based on household expenditures for 35 grocery categories
  • 2008
  • Ingår i: Journal of Retailing and Consumer Services. - Elsevier. - 0969-6989. ; 15:1, s. 42-51
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The aim of this study is to examine the relationship between retailer brand (RB) market shares and consumer prices. Furthermore it investigates whether changes in category price and expenditure are due to changes in customer purchase patterns or changes in relative price levels (price gap) of RBs and national brands (NBs). Data from the market research company GfK's consumer household panel, comprised of purchases made by 3000 Swedish households, for 35 randomly chosen grocery categories during the time period 2001–2004, is analysed. Results show a weak but significant negative relation between RB market share size, and the consumer prices in terms of household expenditures. The price level and changes in price level are first of all due to change in prices of the market leader and secondly due to changes in customer purchase patterns. The results also show some evidence that RBs have greater impact on prices initially, when the RB market share grows from 0% to 10%.
  • Oghazi, Pejvak, et al. (författare)
  • Online purchase return policy leniency and purchase decision : Mediating role of consumer trust
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: Journal of Retailing and Consumer Services. - Elsevier. - 0969-6989. ; 41, s. 190-200
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Recasting prior work on return-policy and purchase intentions literature, through the lens of signaling theory and relational signaling theory, we posit that returns policy, as a market signaling mechanism, is a costly investment that online retailers make to not only support current transaction but also to signal commitment towards customer service. What outcome would such costly signal result into? Based on relational signaling theory, it promotes trust, that in turn, could enhance purchase intentions. With empirical data from 730 online consumers of fast-moving consumer goods in Sweden, the study finds that, after controlling for shoppers’ age, education, income, gender, and frequency of online purchases, perceived consumer trust fully mediates the effect of perceived return policy leniency on purchase intention. Building on past research, we apply a different theoretical lens that connects costly signaling that drives relational signaling to foster customer trust to improve purchase intentions.
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